Planning also involves establishing project

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Planning also involves establishing project boundaries and identifying controllable and uncontrollable variable that must be managed. Also the performance criteria should be stated related to the project objectives and in measures of time, cost and quality characteristics. 22.3.2 PROJECT SCHEDULING Project scheduling establishes times and sequences of the various phases of the project. In project scheduling the project manager considers the various activities of an overall project and the tasks that must be accomplished and relates them co-herently to one another over the projects time horizon. Techniques for scheduling projects include Gantt charts and network techniques such as PERT and CPM. Gantt charts do not reflect the interrelationship among resources or the precedence relationships among project activities. Network techniques overcome this shortcoming of Gantt charts bys including precedence relationships.
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264 22.3.3 PROJECT CONTROL Project controls are activities designed to measure the status of component activities of a project, transmit data to a control centre where it is compared with the performance standard and initiate corrective action when required. Exhibit table shows the project planning and control flow chart. Project Planning and Control Flow Chart. Project Planning Objectives Team Organization Project Definition Performance Criteria Time and Cost. Project Scheduling Resources Availability Human, Material and Financial Managerial Technique Gantt Chart, PERT, CPM networks. Project Control Monitoring Revision and updating. The activities and decisions involved in project management. Box 22.3.3: Project Management Activities and Decision (A) Project Planning: i. Indentifying the project customer ii. Establishing the end product or service. iii. Setting project objectives. iv. Estimating the resources and time required for the entire project. v. Deciding the form of the organization for the project. vi. Appointing key personnel e.g., Project Manager) (B) Project Scheduling: i. Developing a detailed work breakdown. ii. Estimating time required for each task. iii. Sequencing the task in the proper order. iv. Developing a start/finish time for each task. v. Developing a detailed budget for each task. vi. Assigning people to tasks. (C) Project Control: i. Monitoring actual time, cost and performance. ii. Comparing planned figures to actual figures. iii. Determining whether corrective action is needed. iv. Evaluating alternative corrective action. v. Taking appropriate corrective action. 22.3.4 PROBABILITY OF COMPLETING A PROJECT We calculated T e by adding t’s along the critical path. Since t e 's are all random variables, then so is T. But the interesting result is that T does not have the same distribution as the t 's but follows e e e
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265 approximately what is called a normal distribution, the bell-shaped curve. A normal distribution is symmetric with a single peak value, and it is described completely by its mean (a) and standard deviation (o). Two normal curves with the same m and s are always identical.
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