experienced by Bahrain was partly due to the high level of immigration which

Experienced by bahrain was partly due to the high

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experienced by Bahrain was partly due to the high level of immigration which doubled the country’s population in the period 2000‒2015. However, it is clear that the gap between the other countries and Singapore has widened, despite the signifi- cant population growth of the latter. 19-20 V I S I O N 2 0 3 0 N AT I O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T S T R AT E GY 2 0 1 6 - 2 0 3 0 Reviewing Performance and Looking to the Future
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PER CAPITA HEALTH EXPENDITURES It is commonly understood that a healthy work- force is one of the foundation pillars of socio-eco- nomic progress. Further, a higher income can lead to better health, since it allows persons to afford better nutrition and healthcare services. In terms of per capita health expenditures, Chart 2.5 shows that, with the exception of Bahrain which doubled its spending, all of the countries, including Trinidad and Tobago, increased their expenditures by a least three and a half times. Estonia’s health expenditures increased fivefold, while New Zealand had the largest numerical increase in health expenditures of US$3,840 versus US$334 for Malaysia, which was the low- est. In the following section the returns on the increase in health expenditures are examined. LIFE EXPECTANCY, INFANT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY Life expectancy is an excellent proxy of the health of a population as it captures the resilience of persons to diseases and is impacted by the quality of health care afforded to combat chronic disease such as hypertension and diabetes. Infant and maternal mortality speaks to the reproductive capacity and sustainability of the society and is also dependent on the quality of healthcare provided and received. Chart 2.6 shows the life expectancy at birth data for the selected countries for the years 2000 and 2014. In 2000, Trinidad and Tobago’s life expectancy was 68.6 years while that of Estonia was 70 years. Among the comparator countries, Costa Rica, Sin- gapore and New Zealand had life expectancies of 77.4, 78 and 78.6 years, respectively. In 2014, CHART 2.5: PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH, 2000 AND 2014 (CURRENT US$) Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators CHART 2.6 : LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, 2000 AND 2014 (YEARS) Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Trinidad and Tobago was only able to increase its life expectancy to 70 years, while Estonia improved to 77.2 years, and New Zealand and Singapore achieved life expectancies of 82.6 and 81.4 years, respectively. The data presented in Chart 2.7 shows that infant mortality 15 in Trinidad and Tobago declined from 25.3 per 1,000 live births in 2000 to 18.2 per 1,000 live births in 2015. However, when compared to the performance of the comparator countries, the gap is troubling, as Costa Rica, which is the weak- est performer in some of the indicators among the selected countries achieved an infant mortality rate of 11.2 per 1,000 live births in 2000 and 8.5 per 1,000 15 Data for Infant and Maternal Mortality are based on modelled estimates done by the World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations (UN) and the World Bank.
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