Therefore FBAs often involve indirect measures such as parent or guardian

Therefore fbas often involve indirect measures such

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Therefore, FBAs often involve indirect measures, such as parent or guardian questionnaires. The questionnaires primarily focus on events occurring immediately before and after the target behavior occurs, but they also often involve evaluating additional factors that might not be as obvious, such as sleep deprivation, medication changes, or changes in family structure (e.g., the addition of a newborn). Interview questions might include the following: 1. Where is the target behavior most and least likely to occur? 2. With whom is the target behavior most and least likely to occur? 3. What generally happens before, during, and after the target behavior occurs? 4. How does the target behavior impact the individual’s, and other family members’, daily routines? For example, is the individual unable to attend certain events because of the target behavior? 5. Describe the individual’s morning, afternoon, and evening routines. In addition to indirect assessments, such as questionnaires, an FBA also requires the behavior intervention team to conduct direct observations. For example, ABC (antecedent, behavior, consequence) data forms provide a format for practitioners to record events and other relevant information occurring before, during, and after the behavior occurs (Cooper et al., 2007). Eventually, this information might reveal a pattern leading to a hypothesis about the function of the target behavior (i.e., why the target behavior occurs). For example, direct observations might indicate that the target behavior occurs in a specific context or during a particular time of day, or more explicit pattern details might emerge, such as target behavior occurring after the individual is denied access to a preferred item. Although antecedents (e.g., events occurring before target behavior) are important to note, the consequence (i.e., events occurring after the target behavior occurs) influences whether or not the behavior will continue to occur (Skinner, 1938). For example, after all teachers entered grades earlier than expected, a principal allowed teachers to wear jeans. In this scenario, if wearing jeans is a preferred activity for the teachers, the jeans-day provision will likely influence early grade entry in the future. Furthermore, events occurring after the target behavior occurs can be classified into a few categories (e.g., access to an item or attention, escape from work or an undesired social situation, or automatic stimulation; Cooper et al., 2007). For example, after conducting direct observations, a data collector might note that during group instruction, Emily called out to answer a question, rather than raising her hand, eight out of nine times. This information, combined with indirect measures, might lead to a hypothesis indicating access to peer attention as a potential reason Emily engages in yelling behavior. Identifying peer attention as a potential reinforcer will assist the behavior intervention team when creating an effective function- based intervention. Without identifying peer attention as the reason behind Emily’s yelling, the
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