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4 gender relations troubled unequal divorce rates are

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4. Gender relations Troubled, unequal. Divorce rates are higher among the poor. Women tend to have unequal opportunities. For example the World Bank study found out that the plight of widows emerged as distinct from that of other social groups, particularly in Africa and Asia. Irrespective of the number of years of marriage, widows often found themselves thrown out of households and destitute overnight. 5. Social relations Discriminatory, isolating. Certainly the poor tend to be discriminated against in society. There is often a tendency to want to isolate them from the rest of the society. Sweep the problem under the rug. 6. Security Lack of protection and peace of mind. The poor feel threatened and have no way to protect themselves, physically and financially. The World Bank study showed that poverty and ill being are the lack of material well-being, insecurity, social isolation, psychological distress, and lack of freedom of choice and action. Not having enough to eat or possessing any assets to cope with shocks was mentioned over and over again. With few exceptions, poor people reported that insecurity and unpredictability of life have increased in the past few years. 7. Behaviors Disregard, abuse by the more powerful. The poor tend to be ignored at best, abused at worse. Often their own behaviors are self-destructive. There tends to be a higher incidence of substance abuse. 8. Institutions Disempowering, excluding. Poor people's powerlessness and voicelessness are most clearly evident in the quality of their interactions with the formal and informal institutions on which they depend for their survival. But the individuals with whom they must interact in the private sector, state, and, to a much lesser extent, civil society are often exclusionary, rude, and uncaring, as well as corrupt and exploitative. Poor people end up depending on their own informal networks of kin and friends for survival and solace.
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11 ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Poverty Although some government programs are excellent and some officials are highly praised, these are the exceptions. In general, poor people in the World Bank study reported finding it difficult to take advantage of government programs, whether for loans, education, or health care, or for child, disability, or old-age benefits. They give detailed descriptions of the amounts and frequency of the unofficial payments they are required to make for government services. They speak of teachers who do not teach, doctors who do not show up or who want to see patients for a fee in their private clinics, nurses whom extract payments even to register patients. Nongovernmental and religious organizations are valued where they exist. However, they, too, are often seen as not accountable or as refusing to listen to the poor. Religious organizations are also faulted for excluding people of other denominations from their beneficence, thereby sowing seeds of disunity in communities. 9. Organizations of the poor Weak, disconnected. Those who can organize and mobilize get their voices heard and their interests represented. The rich are organized and connected; the poor invariably are not.
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