Avoidance conditioning organism learns to avoid

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Avoidance Conditioning – organism learns to avoid unpleasant and painful situations before they occur Aversive Conditioning - In aversive conditioning, the therapist attempts to change the client's behavior by pairing an undesirable behavior with an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus to decrease the behavior's frequency. Difference between Escape and Avoidance is the signal to avoid the negative stimulus before it occurs Learned Helplessness – when a subject does not attempt escape painful situations after learning that escape is not possible The six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, disgust, surprise, anger, and fear) are universally recognized, suggesting that there is a biological basis for the display of these emotions.
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Psychophysics – study of relationships between the physical attributes of stimuli and psychological experiences they produce Oldest subfield of psychology o Assess ones senses on a theoretical level provides a means relating to the physical world to that of the inner psychological world Absolute Threshold – the physical intensity of a stimulus Occurs for all senses, sound, smell, touch and taste Signal Detection Theory - decision making process of separating a signal from background noise Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Love 4. Self Esteem 5. Self –Actualization (last or at the top) Abraham Maslow – Hull’s drive-reduction Theory Humanism movement in psychology Human behavior responds to needs , and not all needs are physiological , I am cold, so I’ll put on a coat Amplitudes – difference between dim light and bright light Monochromatic – pure light (all light waves are one length and hue) Cornea – though, round, transparent outer shell of the eye Light enters through the cornea Pupil – part of the eye that looks black, opens and closes let the correct amount of light enter the eye Sclera – white part of eye that protects and manages shape of the eye Retina – back of the eye and is light sensitive, includes receptors called cones and rods and other neurons Rods- respond to light Cones – respond to color and motion Iris- ring of muscles that make up the colored part of our eyes Fovea – center of the retina, contains the cones, responsible for color vision The  opponent-process theory of color vision   was developed by Ewald Hering,
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who noted that there are some color combinations that we never see, such as reddish-green or yellowish- blue. Opponent-process theory suggests that color perception is controlled by the activity of two opponent systems; a blue-yellow mechanism and a red-green mechanism. Olfaction – sense of smell Gustation – sense of taste – taste is our lease efficient human sense Sweet, salty, sour and bitter Somesthesis – sense of touch Damage to an individuals’ Parietal Lobe may cause one to lose sensitivity to touch Audition – sense of hearing Vibrating Air pressure waves into nerve (neural) messages the brain decodes as sound
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