Or are we afraid because we run feedback loop theory

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! Or are we afraid because we run? ! Feedback loop ! Theory suggests no specialized brain region for processing emotions
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Cannon-Bard Diencephalic Theory Diencephalon – Thalamus & Hypothalamus Cutting at the level of the diencephalon abolishes fear/anger Stimulating Hypothalamus elicits fear/anger responses The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
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The Papez circuit for emotional processing The Limbic System incorporates a number of different functions ! Emotion, motivation, and cognition ! Amygdala ( learning and fear ) ! Cingulate cortex ( rationale ) ! Hippocampus, subiculum & entorhinal cortex ( learning & memory ) ! Hypothalamus ( homeostasis & drive ) ! Thalamic nuclei ( sensory relay ) ! Nucleus Accumbens ( reward & drive ) ! Cortical areas – OFC ( rationale )
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Components of the limbic forebrain and their connections The structures thought to be involved in emotion have changed Orbitofrontal Cortex Amygdala
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A single ± emotional system ² may not exist ! ± Emotional ² structures have other functions ! E.g. Orbitofrontal cortex and olfaction ! Different emotions make use of different circuits ! E.g. Temporal Pole specific to Sadness ! Better to think in terms of the known mechanisms of individual emotional tasks ! Facial Expressions ! Anatomy of Emotion ! Fear ! Emotion and Memory ! Other Emotions Agenda
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Fear Conditioning depends on the Amygdala Neuroanatomy of conditioned fear learning
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Role of the medial temporal lobe in conditioned fear learning Kluver-Bucy Syndrome is observed in monkeys with bilateral temporal lobectomy ! Psychic Blindness ! Problems recognizing common objects ! Oral Tendencies ! Put objects in mouths to identify ! Hypermetamorphosis ! Compulsion to examine things ! Altered Sexual Behavior ! Decrease in Fear ! Vocalization s ! Facial expressions Hallmark: Inability to evaluate the motivational or emotional relevance of objects in the environment
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Patient S.M. had bilateral Amygdala atrophy !
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