Cretaceous tertiary triassic jurassic late devonian

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Cretaceous-Tertiary, Triassic-Jurassic, Late Devonian, and Ordovician-Silurian c) Average annual background extinction rate = 1-5 species per 1,000,000 species 19. ENERGY a) Amount of biomass decreases with each increase in trophic level; ecological efficiency (percentage of usable energy transferred as biomass from one trophic level to the next) ranges from 2-40% (a loss of 60-98%) typically 10% b) Amount of usable energy decreases and ecological efficiency is never 100% 20. FLOW/CONSERVATION OF ENERGY a) Source of energy for life = sun b) 3 types of radiation = electromagnetic, ionizing, and nonionizing c) Convection: up and down movement of rising water bubbles and sinking liquid water heats up the overall body of water Conduction: heat transfer heats up atoms or molecules in one object, causing them to vibrate faster (which heats it up) Radiation: heat radiates into surround air, even though air conducts very little heat d) Law of conservation of matter = matter can neither be created nor destroyed, only transferred or transformed nothing is ever really “gone” e) Nondegradable pollutants most harmful stay in environment the longest cannot break down through natural processes (i.e. arsenic, lead, mercury) f) Waste product most often created = heat g) If we can up our energy efficiency, we can do more with less energy resources and conserve our remaining resources; currently only 16% of the energy used in the U.S. ends up performing useful work…can do much to stop unnecessarily wasting energy! h) To increase efficiency & offset high waste convert high-throughput, highly- linear system into circular matter-recycling-and-reuse economy (low-throughput)
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