But if you add in: The king died, and the queen died because of grief. Then it becomes a story becausethere’s causality-A story has to have a theme, and plot-theme: the lesson, moral, central or dominating idea-Thematic criticism depends on interpretation-What one finds in another work, another will not. That is why there are competing/conflicting themes in stories, because people interpret things differentlyPLOT:-is a pattern of events (events is the interplay of conflicting forces)-Conflicting forces are very often characters that are in opposition, of conflicting sides of a character. Itcan also be a physical forces such an earthquake or fire.-Plot must have conflict-Resolution is not the same as an End-Resolution-End: comes from Aristotle, he says that every narrative needs a beginning, middle, and end.-Elements introduced in the beginning, and resolution is the tying up the details and questions.-Do not expect all questions to be answered in the end, but a narrative must have some type of resolution, a closure.MOOD:1) setting:o time and placeo the narrator tells uso allusiono defining of character2) TONE:o author’s attitudeo consider diction, syntaxo determine if its humorous, tragic, romantic3) CHARACTER:o forces
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4) STYLE:o poetic elementso dictiono syntax5) LITERARY DEVICES:symbol: concrete object standing for an abstract ideasimile: comparison using like or aspersonification: giving inanimate objects using human qualitiesmetaphor: comparison without like or as-“Sally is blue” = Sally is sad-Consider than every culture has core metaphorical systems and one of the most important systems thatwe have is emotions is colorful-Emotion is temperature: people have warm smiles, people have cold eyes-“A relationship is a journey": relationship going off the rails, or relationships burning-Is a statement of identity. EX: “Sally is a pig”-Metaphors tend to be stronger than simile, because it doesn’t use “like or as” it states factsIRONY:-3 types-Verbal irony-Dramatic irony - the audience know more than the characters do-Situational irony - NARRATOR:-Narrative voice: tells storyDRAMATIZE:- Character in the story- 1stperson pronouns (I, we, me, my, our)- As readers we see what the characters do or say but it is all up to the narrator- Everything we see, hear or do is through the narrator- We only knows what the narrator thinks, we see what others do and says through the narrator- We have to consider reliability: it could be unreliable UNDRAMATIZED- NOT RESTRICTED:Not a character3rdpronouns (he, she, it, they, there, his, her)Privilege, omniscient narratorWe know what everyone says, does or thinks- RESTRICTED:We know what people do and say but we only know 1 characterLooking over the shoulder of the main characterThis type is as reliable as the character thinksWe have an issue of reliability bc we cannot always trust the character- EFFACED:We know what all the characters do and sayBut we don’t know what any of the characters thinkIt’s a sense of eavesdropping in a situation
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