B enduring patterns and lasting features chapter 6

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B. Enduring patterns and lasting features?Chapter 6 OutlinesStep One—Read the Chapter and Take Notes As You GoThis outline reflects the major headings and subheadings in this chapter of your textbook. Use it to take notes as you read each section of the chapter. In your notes, try to restate the main idea of each section.Chapter 6: Commonalities and Variations: Africa and the Americas , 500 B.C.E.–1200 C.E.I.Continental ComparisonsA. Agricultural revolutions and complex societiesB. Uneven distribution of humans and domesticated animalsC. Variations in metallurgy and literacyD. American isolation versus Africa in contact
II.Civilizations of AfricaA.Meroë: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization1. Egypt and Nubia2. Kings and queens of Meroë3. Agriculture and long-distance trade4. Coptic for 1,000 yearsB. Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom1. Plow agriculture and Indian Ocean trade2. Monumental buildings and court culture3. Conversion to Christianity and imperial expansionC. Along the Niger River: Cities without States1. Urbanization without imperial or bureaucratic systems2. Iron working and other specializations3. Regional West African trade systemIII.Civilizations of MesoamericaA.The Maya: Writing and Warfare1. As early as 2000 B.C.E.2. Urban centers, mathematics, and astronomy3. Engineered agriculture4. Competing city-states5. A century of collapse after 840 B.C.E.B.Teotihuacán: The Americas’ Greatest City1. Planned, enormous, and still a mystery2. 150 B.C.E.–650 C.E.3. 100,000–200,000 inhabitants in 550 B.C.E.IV.Civilizations of the AndesA.Chavin: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement1. Temple complexes centered around a village2. Village became a major religious center3. Links to all directions via trade routesB.Moche: A Civilization of the Coast1. 250 miles of coast, 100–800 C.E.2. Elite class of warrior-priests3. Rich fisheries and river-fed irrigation4. Fine craft skills5. Fragile environmentC.Wari and Tiwanaku: Empires of the Interior1. 400–1000 C.E.2. Highland centers with colonies in the lowlands3. Distinctions between the two, yet little conflict4. Collapse, but the basis for the late IncaV. Alternatives to Civilization: Bantu AfricaA. Cultural Encounters1. Migrations spread a common Bantu culture2. Bantu strengths: numbers, disease, and iron3. Bantu impact on the Batwa4. Impacts on the Bantu in East AfricaB. Society and Religion1. Wide varieties of Bantu cultures developed, 500–15002. Less patriarchal gender systems
3. Ancestor or nature spirits rather than a Creator God4. Localized not universal faiths and ritualsVI. Alternatives to Civilization: North AmericaA.The Ancestral Pueblo: Pit Houses and Great Houses1. Slow start to agriculture and settled society2. Chaco Phenomenon, 860–1130 C.E.3. Astronomy and art but then warfare and collapseB.Peoples of the Eastern Woodlands: The Mound Builders1. Independent agricultural revolution2. Burial mounds of the Hopewell culture3. Cahokia, 900–1250 C.E.

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