In general terms increasing energy efficiency re quires improvements in

In general terms increasing energy efficiency re

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for their adoption. In general terms, increasing energy efficiency re- quires improvements in existing LICS rather than building new ones. According to Walz (2013), the energy efficiency in the industrial sector of develop- ing countries is on average 2-4 times lower but the picture is rather diverse; given their vast consump- tion levels, the BRICS-countries with very low en- ergy efficiency have enormous potential for energy saving innovation. These countries’ aggressive pur- suit of development in renewable energy technol- ogy is paradoxical, given their failure to emphasise the low hanging fruits of energy efficiency. Although the situation must be addressed by all countries, the large emerging economies in the South in particular could reap large benefits. This is an important element of global energy trans-formation because their demand exercises a strain on energy resources. Energy performance stand-ards for the building sector and others should be a central policy instrument, as an estimated 60 percent of potential global savings in emissions can be gained in that sector (OECD/IEA, 2013). Such standards could serve to reorient the direc-tion of innovation and stimulate dissemination and uptake in existing LICS. Where such policies exist, they should to be strengthened; where they are absent, they should to be implemented. It is important to avoid rebound effects, which may be mitigated in the South where, in all fairness, room for growth in per capita energy use should be allowed. 64 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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Box 9. Industrial energy efficiency in developing countries: barriers and options Barriers to develop and use energy efficient tech- nologies are pronounced in the developing world. Th ese barriers include energy subsidies creating an artificially low price for energy, a lack of infor- mation and skills, difficulty in accessing capital, and concern regarding production disruption. Ad- dressing energy use in industry as a means to realise low-carbon transitions is important, as industry is a key contributor to carbon emissions, especially in emerging economies. Research regarding the ex-periences of policies aimed at increasing industrial energy efficiency in developing countries yielded the following policy implications: 1 The need for a systematic / sector-wide yet tar-geted approach; 2 The need for a long-term time horizon and clar-ity on roles and responsibilities; 3 The need to tailor policies to specific needs of a country and sector; and 4 International energy efficiency programs do make a difference. Industrial energy efficiency policies were more ef- fective when they focused on sectors (e.g., govern- ment, industry associations, firms, academia) versus individual firms and through a series of policy in- struments (e.g., informational instruments coupled with incentives and / or regulations) versus one policy tool. One example comes from the cement industry where in the 1980s the sector consolidated at a global scale offering opportunities for firms to learn. While important to focus on the sector as a whole, it was
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