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# 1 geopotential height uses pressure as a vertical

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1. _______ geopotential height _____________ uses pressure as a vertical height component. It is measured in meters, kilometers and decameters. 2. How does thickness relate to geopotential height (i.e. what is thickness)? Thickness is a proxy for temperature and density at the surface warm air has a low density and a high thickness cold air has a high density and a low thickness 3. What is a pressure surface? How does it change throughout the atmosphere as a result of thickness and geopotential height? Use standard pressure surface (i.e. 850, 500, etc.) within your response. 4. What meteorological features are analyzed at the following pressure surfaces? 850mb: Temperature 700mb: Moisture 500mb: Patterns 300-150mb: Jet Stream 5. Describe how temperature and density can lead to low thickness. 6. Describe how temperature and density can lead to high thickness. 7. What happens to the pressure surfaces at upper levels when cold air and warm air (i.e. two different air masses) at the Earth’s surface move closer together? Explain.

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8. Upper level pressure surfaces are steepest in areas of strong horizontal temperature gradient at the surface. ( True / False) 9. What is the jet stream? What conditions exist at the Earth’s surface and upper levels of the atmosphere to create the jet stream? Jet Stream: high-speed air flow in narrow bands within the upper-air westerlies and along certain other global latitude zones at high levels. Caused by steep slope in upper-level pressure surfaces (500, 300, 200 hPa) Often above strong horizontal temperature contrast near the earth’s surface aka a front. 10. In the midlatitudes, the jet stream moves from west to east. ( True / False) 11. Why is the jet stream commonly found in the midlatitudes? Strongest temperature differences are found in the midlatitudes. 12. The jet stream is much larger in its horizontal dimension than in its vertical dimension. ( True / False) 13. Compare and contrast the Polar and Subtropical Jet Stream. Differences: latitude, Polar: 35 and 65 degrees; Polar is constant, Subtropical is not Similarities: high altitude Page 198 14. The Polar Jet Stream is typically found above the polar front. ( True / False) 15. When does the Polar Jet Stream have the strongest wind speeds? Why? I n general, winds are strongest under the tropopause (except during tornadoes, hurricanes or other anomalous situations). If two air masses of different temperatures or densities meet, the resulting pressure difference caused by the density difference (which causes wind) is highest within the transition zone. The wind does not flow directly from the hot to the cold area, but is deflected by the Coriolis Effect and flows along the boundary of the two air masses. 16. When is the Polar Jet Stream farthest north over North America? Why? Summer, the temperature gradients are strongest during this time. It is found over Canada.
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• Fall '12
• Fusco
• jet stream, True / False

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