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Environment Homework #2

Stage 1 the first stage of the demographic transition

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Stage 1: The first stage of the demographic transition model is the period before economic development. This means that the populations of these periods suffer from low amounts of food and high risk of disease. Since death rates are higher, people compensate by having more children, causing the birth rate to increase. Stage 2: The second stage of the demographic transition model is also referred to as mortality transition. More food is available and living conditions improve with the economic conditions; education is also more available. The death rate drops while the birth rate either stays at a high level or increases, causing the human population growth to accelerate as well. Stage 3: The next stage of the demographic transition model is known as the fertility transition. Changes in society and culture due to the still improving economic development cause birth rates to lower. Since birth rates fall and death rates still remain low, the population growth rate ultimately slows down. The United States is currently in the fertility transition. Stage 4: The final stage of the demographic transition model is the stability transition. Much like the third stage, the stability transition has low birth rates and low death rates that are nearly identical to one another, causing the population to stay relatively the same or even decrease slightly.
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3) Section 5.1 Question #4: Explain why economic development and human well-being result in continuously declining birth rates during the fertility transition stage of the demographic transition. There are several reasons behind why birth rates begin declining during the fertility transition stage of the demographic transition. One reason would be because of the lower death rates: with lower death rates, people might choose to have fewer children. In this stage, people may also delay starting families to take advantage of the improved economic conditions. These people may also use contraceptives during sex to decrease the chance of pregnancy, or they can also use other forms of family planning. 4) Section 5.2 Question #2: Total fertility rates overestimate the actual number of children an average woman will bear in her lifetime. Why is this so? Total fertility rates are used to estimate how many children a women will bear during their reproductive years (15-49 years old) according to each country. Most of the world’s poorest countries have total fertility rates that lie between 5.0 and 7.0 children while wealthier countries usually lay between 1.3 and 2.1 children. The problem with these estimations is that they make the assumption that every woman will live through all of her reproductive years, which is clearly not true. It is almost accurate in more wealthy countries like the United States, but even here women pass away during their reproductive years; as recent as 2005, 3% of American women who lived to age 15 died before they were 50. In Ethiopia, where the total fertility rate is 6.1, 18% of women
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Stage 1 The first stage of the demographic transition model...

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