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A New Papacy:Council of Constance (1414)Burn Jan Hus, killing people who are questioning the churchElect ONE Pope, Martin VElect Martin V as Pope1447 Nicholas V: Brings Renaissance1460 Pope Pius II reaffirm powerMore incomeDo not need to depend on others for money, have more income coming inSt. Peter’s Basilica:Place of St. Peter’s CrucifixionShow power of PapacyC. 1450 pull down parts
Last Days: The Road to Reformation18:24150 year processBramante, Raphael, Michelangelo1515 Pope Leo X and indulgences Decides to sell indulgences in order to make money to help rebuild St. Peter’s BasilicaWarrior Popes:Turmoil in ItalyAlexander VI (1492-1503)Borgia Pope, cared more about his family than the churchUsed the church to create a power base within his own familyJulius II (1503-13)Fights the FrenchDecided to grow a beard, won’t shave until he took over a cityExpanded and protected power wellCommissioned art (Sistine Chapel)Leo X (1513-1521)Medici PopeMediate between statesPortugal and Spain, Pope puts forth the Treaty of Tordesillas War with statesMix of religious and secular powerChurch and State:Both centralizeSome cities under church rule1438: France and Pragmatic SanctionGives France more control over appointing bishopsGrowth of French church1448: HRE and Concordant of ViennaMore power to the Holy Roman EmperorMagistrates have spiritual roleEveryday Catholicism:
Last Days: The Road to Reformation18:24Local parish church centerOften the biggest building in the townIn the shape of a cross a lot of the timeAttend every SundayHierarchy in spaceMore elite towards the front, lower classes in the backMass in LatinEucharist centerHoly moment, bread and wine become blood and flesh of ChristCommunion once a yearOrder, awe, powerPoor Man’s Bible:95% illiterate, direct connection with the Bible is hard, religious education from priest and churchStories in paintings and glassImpressive cathedralsAlso irreverent Community Center:Focus of celebrationsChurch alesSense of playMystery playsPower of Religion:Reinforce the power of communityDistanced powerThe priest is together with the community but also separate, they go to him for a more direct communication with GodRitual and Latin augmentShrines and Pilgrimages:Not passive receivers, very activeJourney part of experience
Last Days: The Road to Reformation18:24Leave offeringsTo Compostela or LoretoMasses decideDanger: Hans Behem, 1476Decides that he has seen a vision of the Virgin Mary and preaches social equalityBurned or hung as a hereticLayfolk and Religion:Prayer = powerGrowth of confraternitiesPromise to give support and pray for each other