263 Culture generates likely reactions and tendencies for ones behaviour

263 culture generates likely reactions and tendencies

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tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others” (Hofstede, 1991, p. 263). Culture generates likely reactions and tendencies for one’s behaviour (Manstead, 1997) and “it forms the roots of action” (Trompenaars et al., 1994, p. 24). For example, marketing literature shows that “culture greatly influences the way consumers perceive and behave” (Ogden et al., 2004, p. 1). Given the impact of culture on human behaviours, the next section compares the two cultural models of Hofstede and GLOBE. 4.3 Comparisons between Hofstede and GLOBE cultural frameworks Hofstede’s (2001) and GLOBE (House et al., 2004) frameworks have been widely used in business research but the former has a longer history than the latter. The frameworks of Hofstede and GLOBE were developed in 1980 and 2004 respectively. GLOBE is more up-to-date, incorporates more countries, and has nine cultural dimensions compared to Hofstede’s framework of five. The participants in Hofstede’s study were employees of one company, IBM, and they included all levels, including management, whereas GLOBE’s participants were middle managers from three industrial sectors. This study adopts Hofstede’s framework due to the weaknesses of GLOBE and the credibility of Hofstede’s framework, as discussed in the next two subsections. 4.3.1 Weaknesses of the GLOBE framework The GLOBE study has several weaknesses. First, the framework focuses on leadership instead of general differences between national cultures (P. Smith, 2006). Second, the views of middle managers as their main participants may not necessarily reflect the general view of a country’s population, since they may have better education, and have more exposure to other cultures resulting from international travel, education and business contacts. Third, GLOBE’s value measurements are based on the participants’ perception of how others are behaving, instead of their own behaviour (P. Smith, 2006). Consequently, the GLOBE “values measure has no necessary logical linkages with other measures of values used by Schwartz or Inglehart” (P. Smith, 2006, p. 917). Fourth, GLOBE poses additional challenges for cross-cultural researchers due to the nine cultural dimensions used. The “complexity demanded of analyses built upon nine dimensions of culture will defeat many research designs” (P. Smith, 2006, p. 918).
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45 Fifth, GLOBE contrasts their rankings between “as it is” (practice) and “what it should be” (values) with some significant divergences between the two. GLOBE suggests that practices may be independent from values, which contradicts the fundamental assumption of values affecting peoples’ behaviours (see section 4.2) . Due to GLOBE’s weaknesses, the next subsection examines the credibility of Hofstede’s framework in various studies. 4.3.2 Credibility of Hofstede’s study Hofstede’s cultural framework has garnered much attention from business and social science scholars since its inception. From 1987 to 1997, his work has been cited substantially and business databases “from 1981-1998 have yielded 134 conceptual and empirical studies relating to Hofstede” (Sivakumar & Nakata, 2001, p. 556). According to Harzing’s “Publish or Perish” citation index for 2010, there were “54,000 citations to Hofstede’s work” (Tung & Verbeke, 2010, p. 1259). Hofstede’s model has been
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