help from ones peers getting high can be regarded as fun if that person reassures you that what your feeling is normal and that its all just a trip Chambliss – in his comparison of youth gangs he found that in some cases it is not what you do but who you are. Lower class youth are more likely to be sanctioned than middle class youths even though the lower class youths committed fewer deviant actsoLabeling theory/Societal reaction theory – focuses not on the one whocommits the deviant act but on the response of the audience, if you treat people as deviant and cut off their opportunities to be anything other than deviant, you increase the chances that they actually will become deviant Primary deviance– The kind of deviant acts that almost everyone des from time to time; frequently, may go unnoticed and unsanctioned Secondary deviance– deviant behavior that occurs after and because of the fact that the individual already has been labeled as deviant Chapter 12Ascribed status - a status that is bestowed upon an individual, regardless of his or her efforts or wishes Achieved status – A status earned by the individual through his or her own effortsCaste System – ones rank is determined at birth, ascribed The four varnas: oBrahmans– priests, seers and philosophersoKshatriyas– Warriors, royalty and administratorsoVaishyas– producers, merchants, farmers, artisans and other skilled workersoShudras– peasants and unskilled workers oDalits – member of the lowest class in Indian caste system Estate System – determined at birth oFirst Estate– aristocracy or nobility oSecond Estate– clergy oThird Estate– peasants and in time merchants and craftsmen
Stratification – when people are ranked in a society Legitimating rationale – the Hindu idea of transmigration or reincarnation, it is generally believed that each person is born into a particular caste as a result of his or her actions in a previous life oCaste system- Status is ascribed, it is hereditary, you can’t earn your caste, boundaries between castes are relatively impermeable meaning you can’t change your caste oEstate system- Status is ascribed, it is hereditary, you can’t earn your estate, boundaries between layers are relatively impermeable You can’t change your estateoClass system- Status is achieved (theoretically), you can earn your class, boundaries between classes are relatively permeable, you can change your classMarx’s conception of class – most important thing was the economic systemoBourgeoisie– those who own the means of production – the factoriesand other large production facilities oProletariat– are those who place in the means of production is to labor, they only have their labor power to sell Weber’s conception of class – social stratification was multidimensional oLifestyle– distinctive ways in which people consume goods and services; the social customs associated with each class. Lifestyle differences tend to reflect people financial and social resourcesoLife chances– indicates the probabilities concerning the fate and individual can expect in life. Life chances include the probability that
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- Spring '08
- Sociology, deviant varies