O risk factors rheumatic heart disease atrial

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o -risk factors: rheumatic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, recent MI , ventricular aneurysm, bacterial endocarditis o Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) o "Ministroke" o -equivalent to brain angina, reflects a temporary disturbance in cerebral blood flow, which reverses before infarction occurs o - causes: are HTN, hyperlipidemia, smoking, diabetes, heart disease, coagulation disorders, alcohol, obesity, cocaine, race, age, gender, heredity o - they may provide warning to an impending stroke, the risk for stroke is 15% in the following 3 mos after the TIA o hemorrhagic stroke o -most frequent fatal stroke caused by spontaneous rupture of an intracerebral vessel o - with rupture of a blood vessel, hemorrhage into the brain tissue occurs, resulting in a focal hematoma and sometimes intraventricular hemorrhage, edema, compression of the brain contents, and spasm of the adjacent blood vessels o - risk factors advancing age and HTN, other causes include aneurysm , trauma, erosion vessels by tumors, arteriovenous malformation, blood coagulation disorders, vasculitis, and drugs o - S/S: Vomiting is the first sign, HA. focal symptoms are dependent on which vessel is involved. hemorrhage into the basal ganglia results in contralateral hemiplegia, with initial flaccidity progressing to spasticity, the hemorrhage and resultant edema exert great pressure on the brain substance, and the clinical course progresses rapidly to coma and death Types of brain cancer; treatment methods the three main treatment options for brain tumors is surgery, irradiation, and chemo o Neuroglial tumors - Are the most common form of primary brain tumors, they derive from astrocytes, the oligodendrocytes, and the ependymal cells - gliomas Are divided into four grades; Grades I and II are low grade tumors, whereas grade III and IV are high-grade tumors
o Astrocytomas - There are two types: infiltrating and non-infiltrating. - Infiltrating astrocytomas account for 80% of adult primary brain tumors. They occur between 40-60, They are usually found in the cerebral hemispheres, in the cerebellum, brainstem, or spinal cord. Diffuse astrocytoma's or grade II; anaplastic astrocytoma's or grade III; And the least differentiated and most aggressive, glioblastoma's or grade IV - Grade 1 designation is reserved for the non-infiltrating pilocytic astrocytomas, which are distinguished from other astrocytomas by their cellular appearance and they're benign behavior. They occur in children and young adults and usually are located in the cerebellum, these tumors grow slowly and, in the cerebellum particularly, maybe treated by resection. Oligodendrogliomas - They are tumors of the oligodendrocytes - They represent 5 to 15% of neuroglial tumors in our most common between the ages of 40 and 50 - The tumors are found mostly in the cerebral hemispheres, with a predilection for white matter. The prognosis is less predictable and they can be seen with spontaneous hemorrhage ependymomas Are derived from the single layer of epithelium that lines the ventricles and spinal canal.

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