Philosophy Discussion Day 15

First principle of justice each of us is entitled to

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First principle of justice: Each of us is entitled to the most extensive liberty  compatible without a like liberty for all Second principle of justice: Inequalities are arbitrary unless they can be  reasonably expected to benefit the least well off o Benefits and burdens have to be genuinely open to everyone Ex. Hereditary monarchies are not open to all and so they are  ruled out Suppose you have some individuals engaged in a practice these individuals are rationally self interested, alike in needs and interests  and roughly equal in power and ability at some point, the question will arise as to the justice of the rules governing  the practice
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given 2, we can assume that each party to the disagreement will press his  rights as far as possible o each will recognize that morality demands principles that are universal  and that will apply in the future given 4, we know that each individual will propose principles that they would  accept even if they occupied the least advantaged position in the practice o I’m going to propose principles that would apply to me if I am the least  well off In that case, Rawls thinks these individuals would propose those two  principles of justice is the argument persuasive o egalitarian: the difference principle is bad because it allows for  inequalities  inequalities are always bad because it doesn’t respect the  equity of human value humans are valuable and the only way to truly respect them is  through the egalitarian equal distribution of goods o utilitarians: not obvious that people wouldn’t select the utilitarian  priniciple of justice; it’s unreasonable to believe that people will reason  the same way that you did o premise 5 rationally self interested may select the utilitarian principle of  justice Rawls thinks we’ll be risk averse But we may not and may choose the utilitarian principle  of jusitce Why do the inequalities have to benefit the least well off o What if it seriously benefits the middle classes, why would that  inequality be justified? It’s not clear why rawls chooses to single out  the least well off Better to present one and do it in detail Question 5: What is Rawls’s objection to the utilitarian conception of justice?  What might the utilitarian say in response?
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criticizes utilitarianism for not being able to account for the fact that slavery is  always unjust you have to weight the advantages and disadvantages of situations if you add the advantages of the slaveholders and the disadvantages of the 
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