Psychology Lessons 3-6 Notes .docx

Bf skinner prominent in operant conditioning

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B.F. Skinner prominent in operant conditioning development. Operant : any behavior that results in either a good consequences (reinforcement) or a bad consequence (punishment).
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Operant Conditioning: the organism learns the contingency between particular behavior (operant) and the consequences (good or bad). Skinner believed physical response not important thing, but rather consequences of it. Consequence: outcome or result of a behavior experienced by the animal exhibiting that behavior; can be neutral, good, or bad. Reinforcement - Results in behavior being more likely exhibited in future Positive reinforcement - Give something good - Ex. getting a treat for good behavior Negative reinforcement - Taking away something bad - Ex. buckling a seatbelt to take away annoying beeping sound Punishment - Results in behavior being less likely exhibited in future Positive punishment - Give something bad (shock) - Ex. touching hot stove Negative punishment - Taking away something good decreases probability - Ex. having cell phone taken away Escape/Avoidance Conditioning - form of learning in which organism learns to perform a behavior to escape/avoid an aversive stimulus = NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT Reinforcement: results in behavior being more likely exhibited in future. Punishment: results in behavior being less likely exhibited in the future. Positive: ex. Treat for good behavior. Negative: ex. Buckling seatbelt to stop the annoying sound. Positive: ex. Touching something hot. Negative: ex. Getting cellphone taken away.
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Shaping - reinforcement of behavior that successfully approximates the desired response until that response is fully acquired Chaining - reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response A behavior is under STIMULUS CONTROL if it is likely to be exhibited when that stimulus is present and unlikely when it is absent. - Extinction and spontaneous recovery also possible with operant and conditioning NOT ALL BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE IS LEARNING Learning is an algorithm we use to thrive in a changing world. Schedules of reinforcement: Continuous reinforcement - reinforcement provided in each time desired behavior is shown Intermittent reinforcement - occasional reinforcement of a desired behavior --> makes behavior more resistant to extinction, slower to acquire -Fixed ratio - (ex. every 6th time towel hung up reward) -Variable ratio - (ex. average every 4th, but could be 1 or 6) Variable schedule of reinforcement - reinforcement after variable number of behaviors or after variable amount of time - Ratio schedules with high ratios encourage organisms to exhibit lots of the desired behavior (ex. worker makes $1 for every 6 shifts) = high response rate - Interval schedules encourage a lower response rate Scalloping- effect produced as reinforcement in a fixed interval schedule is anticipated (graph looks like scallop) Partial Reinforcement Effect - extinction occurs slowly as there have been many trials without reinforcement followed by trials with reinforcement Superstitious Behavior - operant behaviors that have been accidentally reinforced (ex.
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