# 1 time study stop watch technique 2 synthesis 3 work

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1.Time study (stop watch technique),2.Synthesis,3.Work sampling,4.Predetermined motion and time study,5.Analytical estimating.Time study and work sampling involve direct observation and the remaining aredata based and analytical in nature.
1) Time Study:ILO defined time study as ‘a technique for determining as accurately as possiblefrom a limited number of observations, the time necessary to carry out a givenactivity at a defined standard of performance’. For carrying out a time study,equipment’s such as stopwatch, study board, pencils, slide rule, etc. are required.The different types of stopwatches include:1. Stopwatches that record one minute per revolution by intervals of one- fifth ofa second with a small hand recording 30 minutes.2. Stopwatches that record one minute per revolution, calibrated in one-hundredth of a minute with a small hand recording 30 minutes.3. Decimal-hour stopwatches recording one-hundredths of an hour with a smallhand recording up to one hour in 100 divisions.The following steps are necessary for carrying out a time study for themeasurement of work:a. To collect and complete all available information about the job, which shouldalso include the surrounding conditions and also the attributes of the operators,which are likely to affect the workb. To record the details of the methods and also to break down differentoperations into their elementsc. To record the time taken by the operators to perform the operation (element-wise) measuring preferably with a timing device such as a stopwatch
d. To assess the working speed of the operators by comparing the same with apredetermined normal speede. To convert the observed time to normal timef. To decide the rate of allowances that may be given over and above the normaltime of the operationg. To determine the allowed time for operation2) Synthetic data:A work measurement technique for building up the time for a job or pans of thejob at a defined level of performance by totaling element times obtainedpreviously from time studies on other jobs containing the elements concerned orfrom synthetic data.3) Work sampling:Work sampling: Work sampling does not involve stopwatch measurement, as domany of the other techniques; instead, it is based on simple random samplingtechniques derived from statistical sampling theory. The purpose of the samplingis to estimate what proportion of a worker's time is devoted to work activities. Itproceeds along the following steps• Decide what activities are defined as "working." "Not working" comprisesall activities not specifically defined as "working."• Observe the worker at selected intervals, recording whether aperson is working or not.P=Number of observations during which working occurredTotal number of observations

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Term
Spring
Professor
N/A
Tags
Production and manufacturing