11Since petitioner raises a pure question of lawpertaining to the court’s jurisdiction on complaint for judicial fore- closure of sale, we would allow petitioner’s direct resort to us.The RTC dismissed the foreclosure cases finding that being areal action and the assessed value of the mortgaged property isonly P13,380.00, it is the first level court which has jurisdictionover the case and not the RTC.Jurisdiction over the subject matter is the power to hearand determine cases of the general class to which theproceedings in question belong. It is conferred by law andan objection based on this ground cannot be waived by theparties.12To determine whether a court has jurisdictionover the subject matter of a case, it is important todetermine the nature of the cause of action and of the reliefsought.13Batas Pambansa Blg.(BP) 129 as amended by RepublicAct No. (RA) 7691 pertinently provides for the jurisdictionof the RTC and the first level courts as follows:_______________10 Mangaliag v. Catubig-Pastoral, 510 Phil. 637, 645; 474 SCRA 153,160-161 (2005), citing Ouano v. PGTT International InvestmentCorporation, 433 Phil. 28, 34; 384 SCRA 589, 592-593 (2002); Vergara, Sr.v. Suelto, 240 Phil. 719, 732; 156 SCRA 753, 766 (1987).
3/12/2021SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED 8627/1011 Pacoy v. Cajigal, 560 Phil. 599, 607; 534 SCRA 338, 346 (2007);Mangaliag v. Catubig-Pastoral, id., at p. 647; pp. 161-162.12 Heirs of Valeriano S. Concha, Sr. v. Lumocso, 564 Phil. 581, 592-593; 540 SCRA 1 (2007), citing Republic v. Sangalang, 243 Phil. 46, 50;159 SCRA 515, 518 (1988).13 Id., citing Philippine Association of Free Labor Unions v. Padilla,106 Phil. 591 (1959), citing Perkins v. Roxas, 72 Phil. 514 (1941).325VOL. 862, APRIL 23, 2018325Roldan vs BarriosSec. 19. Jurisdiction in civil cases.—Regional TrialCourts shall exercise exclusive original jurisdiction:1. In all civil actions in which the subject of thelitigation is incapable of pecuniary estimation;2. In all civil actions which involve the title to, orpossession of, real property, or any interest therein,where the assessed value of the property involvedexceeds Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000.00) or, forcivil actions in Metro Manila, where such valueexceeds Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) exceptactions for forcible entry into and unlawful detainer oflands or buildings, original jurisdiction over which isconferred upon the Metropolitan Trial Courts,Municipal Trial Courts, and Municipal Circuit TrialCourts.andSec. 33. Jurisdiction of Metropolitan Trial Courts,Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courtsin civil cases.—Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal TrialCourts, and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts shall exercise:x x x x3) Exclusive original jurisdiction in all civil actionswhich involve title to, or possession of, real property,or any interest therein where the assessed value ofthe property or interest therein does not exceedTwenty thousand pesos (P20,000.00) or, in civilactions in Metro Manila, where such assessed valuedoes not exceed Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00)exclusive of interest, damages of whatever kind,attorney’s fees, litigation expenses and costs:Provided, That in cases of land not declared for