Functional groups will be common in other molecules

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Functional groups will be common in other molecules but will always have the same function no matter what; their function is their function o These groups add to the versatility and function of organic molecules o Table 2.1 Hydroxyl Chemical formula: -OH Structure: -O-H Chemical property: polar Sylhydryl polar Phosphate polar Carboxyl acid Amino Base - Four basic categories of biomolecules o All of these are large molecules that are made up of smaller molecules o Carbohydrates Monosaccharides contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Monosaccharides is a simple sugar o Glucose, fructose and galactose make disaccharides Ex: 5 carbon 10 hydrogens and 5 oxygen Ring structure
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7 2 major purposes: energy (especially in the human body) or for structural support Energy storage molecule in humans is glycogen. Used for quick energy and is metabolized when blood sugar levels drop Stored in the skeletal muscle and liver of humans Human body always thinks it is starving to death; it is always preparing for a time when it is dying The problem is that there is only so much room in the skeletal muscle and liver. If you take in more glucose than there is room, the glucose turns into fat. The more muscle you have the more room you have to store glycogen. That is why people with a lot of muscle eat a lot and are not fat because they have a lot of room to store glycogen Carb-loading The process of increasing the amount of glycogen stored in the body prior to a race or competition A two stage process o Depletion phase: a week or two prior to competition, intense exercise and a no-carb/high protein diet o Loading phase: a couple of days before competition, no intense exercise, eating as many carbs as you can take in Good for quick energy when in competition o Ex: Michael Phelps eats 20,000 calories a day when he is training for the Olympics Water weight Blood glucose is metabolized first in the human body. Afterwards, glycogen reserves are metabolized. Finally, fat is burned Glycogen is polar, which means it dissolves in water. Each once of glycogen has as many as four ounces of water attached to it Fat is extremely nonpolar. Fat is very dry because It has no water attached to it o When starting on a diet, don’t focus on the scale and weight; focus on how your clothes fit and how you look. Because in the first couple weeks of the diet you are losing water weight not fat weight o Lipids: oils and fats Lipids consist of nonpolar hydrocarbon chains and rings Usually hydrophobic meaning they don’t like water (insoluble in water) Triglycerides Include fats and oils One glycerol molecule + three fatty acid molecules Too many of these can lead to clogged arteries and heart disease Saturated vs. Unsaturated Saturated fats are solid at body temperature. They have no C=C bonds.
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