In the united states o 56000 new infections each year

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An Introduction to Physical Science
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Chapter 6 / Exercise 10
An Introduction to Physical Science
Shipman/Wilson
Expert Verified
In the United States o 56,000 new infections each year o Highly associated with lifestyles disenfranchised by much of society Transmission of HIV Fragile virus transmitted only through contact with body fluids under specific conditions o Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk o Sexual contact with an infected partner is the most common mode of transmission. Contact with blood and blood products o Sharing drug-using equipment is risky. o Infection through transfusions of blood or clotting factors is now unlikely with implementation of screening measures. o Puncture wounds are most common means of work-related HIV transmission. Perinatal transmission o Can occur during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding o An average of 25% of infants born to women with untreated HIV will contract the infection. o Treatment can reduce the rate of transmission to less than 2%. Viral Load in Blood and CD4+ T-Cell Counts
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An Introduction to Physical Science
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Chapter 6 / Exercise 10
An Introduction to Physical Science
Shipman/Wilson
Expert Verified
Transmission of HIV Modes of transmission o HIV is not spread through casual contact: o Not hugging o Not dry kissing o Not shaking hands o Not sharing eating utensils o Not using toilet seats Pathophysiology of HIV HIV is a ribonucleic acid virus. o Called retroviruses because they replicate in a “backward” manner going from RNA to DNA o RNA virus that was discovered in 1983 o Binds to specific CD4 and chemokine receptors to enter cell HIV Proteins Bind to Cell Viral Load in the Blood Initial infection o Viremia (large viral levels in blood) for 2 to 3 weeks Transmission is more likely when viral load is high. o Followed by prolonged period (years) of low viral load Pathophysiology of HIV Cells with CD4 receptor sites are infected. o CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) o Lymphocytes o Monocytes/macrophages o Astrocytes o Oligodendrocytes
Immune problems start when CD4+ T-cell counts drop to < 500 cells/μL. o Severe problems develop when < 200 CD4+ T cells/μL. o Normal range is 800 to 1200 cells/μL. Insufficient immune response allows for opportunistic diseases. Timeline for Untreated HIV Infection Clinical Manifestations and Complications Acute Infection o Flulike symptoms Fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, headache, malaise, nausea, muscle and joint pain, diarrhea, or a diffuse rash accompanies seroconversion. Occurs about 2 to 4 weeks after infection Lasts for 1 to 2 weeks Asymptomatic Infection o Median interval of 11 years between infection and diagnosis of AIDS o Fatigue, headache, low-grade fever, night sweats, PGL, and other symptoms o Most are not aware of infected status and thus continue usual activities which may include high-risk sexual or drug-using behaviors causing a serious public health problem. o Clinical Manifestations and Complications Symptomatic Infection o CD4+ T cells drop to 200 to 500 cells/μL.

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