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accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by employees:oconsideration and Initiating structure Contingency Theories•Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support.•Predicting leadership success is more complex than isolating a few traits or behaviors. What works in very bad times and in very good times sometimes doesn’t seem to translate into long-term success.•For any leadership situation, certain specific variables must be addressed. Major approaches to isolating these situational variables are the Fiedler model, situational theory, path–goal theory, and the leader-participation model.•Identifying Leadership StyleoFred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership.17The Fiedler contingency modelproposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control.oFor Fiedler, a key factor in leadership success is basic leadership style. He created the least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaireto identify whether a person is task or relationship oriented.oThe questionnaire asks respondents to think of co-workers and describe the one they least enjoyed working with by rating that person on a scale of 1 to 8 for each of 16 sets of contrasting adjectives. If you describe the person you are least able to work with in favorable terms, Fiedler would label you relationship oriented. If you see your least-preferred co-worker in unfavorable terms, you are primarily interested in productivity and are task oriented. Over 80 percent of people fall into one category or the other.•Defining the SituationoAfter assessing an individual’s basic leadership style, we match the leader with the situation. There are three contingency or situational dimensions: Leader–member relationsconcern the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in a leader.Task structureis the degree to which assignments are procedurized (structured or unstructured).Position poweris the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.oThe next step is to evaluate the situation in terms of these three variables. The better the leader–member relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has.•Matching Leaders and SituationsoCombining the contingency dimensions yields eight situations in which leaders might find themselves. Matching an individual’s LPC score and these eight situations will achieve maximum leadership effectiveness.19Task-oriented leaders perform better in situations very favorable to them and very unfavorable. Relationship-oriented leaders perform better in moderately favorable situations.oFiedler has recently condensed these situations to three.20He now says task-oriented leaders perform best with high or low control, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best with moderate control.•Applying Fiedler’s Model