It takes about _______ years to master nut-cracking skills & _______ years to become skilled at termiting. _______ tool-use indicates that we need to re-think our depictions of human prehistory.
The data indicate that adult _______ would have contributed to early human survival. SO – why can’t I find a good illustration of a _______ in prehistory making & using stone tools? Some claim that women are too _______ to make stone tools. But there are a number of women who can successfully flintknap. o There other insights from chimp stone tool users. In West Africa, researchers have documented the formation of chimp nut processing sites (Mercader, Panger, Boesch, 2002). The results provide a blue-print for what this would look like at an archaeological site – this has led to reconsideration of some prehistoric data. Repeated use of a prep site produces nut shell trash & 500 stone pieces (hammer stones & flakes). The chimp sites & stone tools are very similar to ______________ from early human archaeological sites. CULTURE? o ______________ variation in chimp tool-use has raised an interesting question – are we observing the origins of “cultural” behaviors? Chimp regional variation in tool-use may be due to proto- cultural differences. HOWEVER, the ______________ vary in ecology and the differences may simply be environmental. Termite wanding occurs in chimp populations in dry savanna & woodland forests across Western & Eastern Africa. Nut-cracking with hammer stones is restricted to common chimp populations in the damp rainforests of ______________ Africa. The other sites do not have the same types of vegetation and, importantly, ______________! o Chimp regional variation extends to hunting behaviors but, AGAIN, there is ecological variation. Many primates engage in hunting behaviors – the best are the tarsiers but mouse lemurs, galagos, & lorises are also excellent hunters! Animal proteins comprise a significant proportion of their diets. Capuchin monkeys and marmosets & tamarins also utilize high amounts of animal proteins. Baboons hunt deer and flamingo. But, remember that these OWMs must make use of every available calorie in their dry habitats. Hunting is different with ______________. Animal protein comprises less than _______% of chimp diet and only 1-3% of meat comes from mammals. For chimps, hunting is less about diet than it is about the endeavor – they like to ______________ ! Hunting has been recorded at nearly every chimp site -- the favorite prey is the red ______________ monkey.
Taï Forest chimps in western Africa engage in ______________ hunting. Gombe Chimps in eastern Africa engage in ______________ – every chimp for himself - hunting. Bottom-line, there is regional variation in chimp hunting behaviors -- in the west, cooperative hunting; in the east, solitary hunting. Are these differences evidence of proto-cultural variation?
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- researcher, Hominidae, Jane Goodall