Walker article treatment of myasthenia gravis themes

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Walker Article – Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis. Themes: Biological Materials. Analytical and Synthetic Chemistry. In 1934, Mary Walker had a patient with Myasthenia Gravis and decided to try and treat the woman using injections of physostigmine. After the injections, Walker recorded that the patient would exhibited signs of better movement and heightened eyelids, however the results were only temporary. Additionally, greater dosages of injections yielded inconsistent results and thus did not produce an obvious effect. It was however a step in the direction of treating myasthenia gravis as Walker knew physostigmine might have produced notable results due to its anticholinergic properties and its inhibitory action on the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine. Johnston Article – Contribution of Mary Walker. Basically her life story.
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Week 7 Hogkin and Katz Article – Effects of Na on electrical Activity of Squid Axon. Primary Source. Themes: Biological Materials. Strategies to detect Processes. Microscopic Technology. Year 1940s. The problem before this time in understanding action potential was that neurons are extremely small and difficult to insert in a recording device like a voltage clamp to measure. Hogkin solved this problem by studying the axons of the giant squid which were huge and measurable relative to other animals. Their findings were the rapid reversal of the membrane potential during an action potential and this was significant as after this discovery, the interest in electrophysiology grew which led to more research being done and finer instruments being made. Huxley Article – From overshoot to voltage clamp. Year: 1930s – 1940s. Themes: Biological Materials. Strategies to detect processes. Microscopic Technology. In this article, Huxley explains his work with Hogkin and their ultimate finding of the Overshoot in 1939. In 1948, they tested their speculations using the voltage clamp, a tool they designed that would help determine the contributions of different ions in the changing of the membrane potential recorded during an action potential. Week 9 Penfield Article – Montreal Neurological Institute. Primary Source. Themes: Microscopy Technology. Penfield founded the neurology institute in Montreal and in the 1930s was one of the first to do EEG and used it to localize regions for epileptic seizures. His work also involved developing labs for microscopy. Penfield and Steelman Article – Treatment of Epilepsy by Cortical Excision. Primary Source. With his institute, Penfield specialized in surgery for epilepsy, specifically temporary lobe epilepsy. Their surgery involved opening the skulls of patients and doing an intraoperative stimulation in the brain. And by 1941, they had a 75% success rate in abolishing/diminishing epilepsy. Week 10 Idk about week 10 so were just gonna go some themes Theme: Synthetic and Analytic Chemistry: Started appearing in the early 1900s, specifically with Dale and his partner Berger through the synthesis of acetylcholine and their derivatives which helped with the eventual understanding of chemical neurotransmission than proposed treatments of diseases like myasthenia gravis.
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