conductivity; thermal time constant and thermoelectric potential; diffusivity; effusivity; specific heatMechanical propertiescompressive, shear and tensile strength (and moduli); Poisson’s ratio; sonic velocity; hardness; temperand embrittlementSurface propertiescolor, reflectivity, refraction index, emissivityChemical Composition and AnalysisElemental analysisdetection, identification, distribution and/or profileImpurity concentrationscontamination, depletion, doping and diffusantsMetallurgical contentvariation; alloy identification, verification and sortingPhysiochemical statemoisture content; degree of cure; ion concentrations and corrosion; reaction productsStress and Dynamic ResponseStress, strain, fatigueheat treatment, annealing and cold work effects; stress and strain; fatigue damage and residual lifeMechanical damagewear, spalling, erosion, friction effectsChemical damagecorrosion, stress corrosion, phase transformationOther damageradiation damage and high frequency voltage breakdownDynamic performancecrack initiation, crack propagation, plastic deformation, creep, excessive motion, vibration, damping,timing of events, any anomalous behaviorSignature AnalysisElectromagnetic fieldpotential; intensity; field distribution and patternThermal fieldisotherms, heat contours, temperatures, heat flow, temperature distribution, heat leaks, hot spots, contrastAcoustic signaturenoise, vibration characteristics, frequency amplitude, harmonic spectrum, harmonic analysis, sonicemissions, ultrasonic emissionsRadioactive signaturedistribution and diffusion of isotopes and tracersSignal or image analysisimage enhancement and quantization; pattern recognition; densitometry; signal classification, separationand correlation; discontinuity identification, definition (size and shape) and distribution analysis;discontinuity mapping and displayMOVIE.Discontinuitiesin steel.
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be detected, then ultrasonic testing orradiography would be chosen. The exacttechnique in each case would depend onthe thickness and nature of the materialand the types of discontinuities that mustbe detected.Value of NondestructiveTestingThe contribution of nondestructivetesting to profits has been acknowledgedin the medical field and computer andaerospace industries. However, inindustries such as heavy metals,nondestructive testing may be acceptedreluctantly because its contribution toprofits may not be obvious tomanagement. Nondestructive testing issometimes thought of only as a cost itemand can be curtailed by industrydownsizing. When a company cuts costs,two vulnerable areas are quality andsafety. When bidding contract work,companies add profit margin to all costitems, including nondestructive testing, soa profit should be made on thenondestructive testing. The attitudetoward nondestructive testing is positivewhen management understands its value.
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