Answers PE_Chapters1-5.doc.docx

2 many examples are possible suppose for example that

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2. Many examples are possible. Suppose, for example, that Roger can prepare a fine meal of hot dogs and macaroni in just ten minutes, while it takes Anita twenty minutes. And Roger can do all the wash in three hours, while it takes Anita four hours. Roger has an absolute advantage in both cooking and doing the wash, but Anita has a comparative 13
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advantage in doing the wash (the wash takes the same amount of time as 12 meals, while it takes Roger 18 meals' worth of time). 3. Comparative advantage is more important for trade than absolute advantage. In the example in problem 2, Anita and Roger will complete their chores more quickly if Anita does at least some of the wash and Roger cooks the fine meals for both, because Anita has a comparative advantage in doing the wash, while Roger has a comparative advantage in cooking. 4. A nation will export goods for which it has a comparative advantage because it has a smaller opportunity cost of producing those goods. As a result, citizens of all nations are able to consume quantities of goods that are outside their production possibilities frontiers. 5. Economists oppose policies that restrict trade among nations because trade allows all countries to achieve greater prosperity by allowing them to receive the gains from comparative advantage. Restrictions on trade hurt all countries. Problems and Applications 1. In the text example of the farmer and the rancher, the farmer's opportunity cost of producing one ounce of meat is 4 ounces of potatoes because for every 8 hours of work, he can produce 8 ounces of meat or 32 ounces of potatoes. With limited time at his disposal, producing an ounce of meat means he gives up the opportunity to produce 4 ounces of potatoes. Similarly, the rancher's opportunity cost of producing one ounce of meat is 2 ounces of potatoes because for every 8 hours of work, she can produce 24 ounces of meat or 48 ounces of potatoes. With limited time at her disposal, producing an ounce of meat means she gives up the opportunity to produce 2 ounces of potatoes. 2. a. See Figure 2. If Maria spends all five hours studying economics, she can read 100 pages, so that is the vertical intercept of the production possibilities frontier. If she spends all five hours studying sociology, she can read 250 pages, so that is the horizontal intercept. The time costs are constant, so the production possibilities frontier is a straight line. 14
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Figure 2 b. It takes Maria two hours to read 100 pages of sociology. In that time, she could read 40 pages of economics. So the opportunity cost of 100 pages of sociology is 40 pages of economics. 3. a. Workers needed to make: One Car One Ton of Grain U.S. 1/4 1/10 Japan 1/4 1/5 b. See Figure 3. With 100 million workers and four cars per worker, if either economy were devoted completely to cars, it could make 400 million cars. Since a U.S. worker can produce 10 tons of grain, if the United States produced only grain it would produce 1,000 million tons. Since a Japanese worker can produce 5 tons of grain, if Japan produced only grain it would produce 500 million tons.
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