Video 6 Controversy about Calcium Build Up Calcium build up in the arteries can

Video 6 controversy about calcium build up calcium

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Video 6 Controversy about Calcium Build-Up - Calcium build-up in the arteries can cause heart attacks in postmenopausal women o A lot of studies done on this topic - Study o One recent study of ~1,500 women with a mean age of 74 taking calcium supplements had a ~50% chance of having either a heart attack or stoke compared with those taking a placebo What to do? It has been determined that calcium uptake is better when vitamin D is enhanced More studies are needed to capture the best relationship with vitamin D and calcium - Osteoporosis Therapy o Vitamin D + Calcium Easy to take and inexpensive 1000 IU of calcium for $0.01 - Adolf Windaus o Nobel Prize in 1928 Eventually worked out Vitamin D-3 Need for sunshine Important in northern climate - Vitamin D o Maintains Ca 2+ o Need UV-B o 500 IU per day - Montreal (Nov. – March) o Sunshine is a lot less and less intense Photochemical transformation of Vitamin D cascade is not nearly as prevalent Snowbird Canadian who goes south for the winter o To get sunshine and maintain calcium level in body - Exercise o Easy assess and should “pump iron” until 80 Stimulates bone density and bone mass increase Demonstrated clearly and inexpensive Activity 7: Osteoporosis Treatment Option Increase or decrease! Vitamin D has been shown to ___________ calcium uptake when the two supplements are taken together.
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Answer: Increase A lack of physical exercise can lead to a(n) ___________ in bone mass therefore weight bearing exercise is recommended as a treatment for osteoporosis. Answer: Decrease Video 7 Therapy - Estrogen o Estrogen receptors detected in bone cells Very complicated o As postmenopausal symptoms arise, estrogen levels decrease o For many years, this was the conclusion: Estrogen: Helps prevent osteoporosis May help prevent heart disease Increases risk of uterine cancer o Dramatic risk, but uterine cancer only affects a very small portion of women May increase risk of breast cancer o Paper The Vanishing Promises of Hormone Replacement Falling Out of Favor (New York Times) Premarin (Highly recommended estrogen supplement) and Prempro (Combination of estrogen and progesterone) to reduce risk of uterine cancer have fallen out of favor - Prempro o Estrogen plus progestin Helps prevent osteoporosis Reduces risk of uterine cancer But… May further increase risk of breast cancer May not be as effective against heart disease - Other ways to look at the data: o 30% Increase in Breast Cancer Risk (Headline) In a ten-year period, 3.5% of postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer With estrogen, this increases to 5% (Data) An alternate interpretation – Just as meaningful o A postmenopausal woman who takes estrogen reduces her change of remaining cancer free from 96.5% to 95% (Equivalent Interpretation) Does not sound as bad when you put your risk based on 100% - Study o Risks & Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Postmenopausal Women In 161,809 healthy individuals
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