Course Hero Logo

103 arguments for affirmative action 1 compensatory

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 38 - 40 out of 55 pages.

10.3 Arguments for Affirmative Action1.Compensatory Justice Argument(Pojman p.193-194)White males have oppressed or discriminated against women and minorities, or have benefittedindirectly from such injustice. Therefore hiring policies favouring women and minorities are justified.But what sort of justice is this?It is a sort of group or collective justice, suggesting that because members of Group A discriminatedagainst Group B in the past, that today members of Group B today should be compensated throughreverse discrimination at Group A's expense. But both groups are made up of individuals, and today'smembers of Group A were not responsible for past policies, and may not all have benefitted from them.Why should the sins of the fathers by visited on the sons? Young white male job-seekers are less likelyto be guilty of discrimination, while young black females are less likely to have been wronged than theirparents.Would it be better to help disadvantaged groups out of the general tax revenues, rather than preferring38
their members at the expense of innocent individual young white males? Would it be fairer? Would it befeasible?2.Equal Results Argument -appeals to distributive justice (Pojman p.191-193)Assumption that statistical under-representation of a certain group in a field is prima facie evidence ofdiscrimination. In other words, if things were fair there would be equal results. Many ethnic groups areconcentrated in different fields. Canadians are "over-represented" in the NHL and African-Americansare "over-represented in the NBA, since each constitutes no more than 10-15% on the North Americanpopulation.Higher percentages of women enter the professions of law and psychology than engineering andcomputer science. High percentages of women obtain doctorates in English than Philosophy. There aremany subtle reasons for this. Why leap to the conclusion that the professions that attract fewer womenare necessarily sexist and unwelcoming or that in a perfectly non-sexist world both women and menwould study every subject and enter every profession in roughly equal numbers?Some feminists might argue that what matters isn't equal representation of the sexes in very job. It iswhether women are equally represented in the highest-paying professions and whether the averagewoman makes as much as the average man. But is this a legitimate goal? Should this be expected evenin a perfectly non-sexist society?Gender equality is obviously good when it means opening up all careers to talent, putting an end to sexdiscrimination, and giving women "equal pay for equal work." One might also uphold the concept of"equal pay for work of equal value." If a city pays its librarians (largely female) less than those whoperform comparable jobs that are male-dominated, one might see the discrepancy as gender-based andequalize rates of pay in the name of gender equity.But what if women's under-representation in certain lucrative but time-consuming occupations is simplydue to the fact that more of them freely choose to undertake childbearing, childrearing, and familyresponsibilities? What if more women freely choose to study Arts and Social Sciences rather than themore lucrative Engineering and Computer Sciences simply because they find these subjects moreinteresting, and are less burdened with the expectation that they need to have a high-earning career tosupport a family or be a "success" in life?
3."Racist or Sexist Society" Argument
4."Role Model" or "Breaking the Stereotypes" Argument(Pojman p.190-191)This argument is based on the benefits, or even the necessity, of having role models for members ofdisadvantaged groups.But how much respect will the beneficiaries of quota hiring inspire? Don't such quotas suggest thatminorities and woman cannot make it on merit but require special help?39

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 55 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Spring
Professor
CraigBeam
Tags
Business Ethics, Professional ethics, ethical code

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture