showed that not only do both hemispheres have unique capabilities, but that together they provide a whole new unified state of consciousness found that can’t simply divide left + right hemisphere functions
Sperry argued that consciousness is an emergent property= ‘’mind’ comes as a result of brain processes, but is not itself a component- meaning that the mind is not reducible to or predictable form other features of the brain•Once C does emerge, then it can have influence over lower-level functions = emergent causation •Mutual interaction between neural and mental events Mind was seen as a supervenient= mental states may influence neuronal events while being influenced by them oEvent-related Potentials(ERPs)Earliest imaging technique= computed tomography (CT) •Detailed anatomical data Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI)•Greatest with spatial resolution Neither provide images for brain activity, only structuresBrain activation records provide sensory info pathways + response-related processes •ERP= electrical signals recorded form the brain that occur after the onset of a stimulus •Brain emits electrical signals, recorded by electrodes•Represented by wavelengths •Present P with different items, and record ERPs from each item Problem: ERPs are good at recording activity, but not easy to determine the underlying cognitive processes oPositron Emission Tomography(PET)Imaging technique where P is injected with a radioactive substance that mingles with the blood and circulates to the brain. A scanner is then used to detect the flow of blood to particular areas of the brain Assumes that when a psych fnxn is engaged, then only those parts of the brain will be engaged/ needing more blood flow•Active parts of the brain use up O2 at a faster rate Problem: limits to the amount of P’s radiation intakeoFunctional Magnetic Resonance Imagery(fMRI)= a non-radioactive magnetic procedure for detecting the flow of oxygenated blood to various parts of the braintaken over the method of PET place P in a large magnetic field/ causes atoms in brain to become aligned with the magnetic field •changes of O2 in blood are thus picked up as alterations in the magnetic field = image of cortical activity Ex. fMRI on reading- reveals brain areas active in language processing wide indvl differences per P View of the brain is no longer phrenological nor just localizatn
•Marshall and Fink suggested that (to some extent) the interaction of different areas of the brain determine their function on a particular occasion•Neural correlates of cognitive functions overlapoConnectionist Models Connectionism= theory that cognitive processes are regulated by complex systems consisting of a large number of interconnected elements•Recognized that information-processing level is independent of physiological explanational level•Based on models of neural networks= a system of
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