A persons expectation of being victimized by

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A person’s expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination Seeing oneself as a victim of pervasive prejudice has its ups and downs (Branscombe & others, 1999) Upside Perceptions of prejudice buffer individual self-esteem Enhance our feelings of social identity Prepare us to join in collective social action Downside Those who perceive themselves as frequent victims live with the stress of presumed stereotypes and antagonism Experience lower well-being o Vivid cases Our minds also use distinctive cases as a shortcut to judging groups Given limited experience with a particular social group We recall examples of it Generalize from those (Sherman, 1996) Encountering an example of a negative stereotype Can prime the stereotype Leading us to minimize contact with the group (Henderson-King & Nisbett, 1996) Such generalizing from a single case can cause problems Vivid instances seldom represent the larger group Those is a numerical minority, being more distinctive May be numerically overestimated by the majority o Distinctive events Stereotypes assume a correlation Between group membership and individuals’ presumed characteristics Even under the best of conditions Our attentiveness to unusual occurrences can create illusory correlations We are sensitive to distinctive events
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The co-occurrence of two such events is especially noticeable More noticeable than each of the times the unusual events do not occur together Illusory correlation occurs and provides another source for the formation of racial stereotypes (Berndsen & others, 2002) Features that most distinguish a minority from a majority are those that become associated with it (Sherman & others, 2009) Even single co-occurrences of an unusual act by someone in an atypical group Can embed illusory correlations in people’s minds (Risen & others, 2007) Enables the mass media to feed illusory correlations Such reporting adds to the illusion of a large correlation between Violent tendencies Homosexuality or mental hospitalization We often have preexisting biases Can lead us to see correlations that aren’t there Help to perpetuate the stereotypes - Attribution: Is it a just world? o In explaining others’ actions We frequently commit the fundamental attribution error We attribute others’ behavior so much to their inner dispositions That we discount important situational forces The error occurs partly because our attention focuses on the person not on the situation o Because gender-role constraints were hard to see We attributed men’s and women’s behavior solely to their innate dispositions o The more people assume that human traits are fixed dispositions The stronger are their stereotypes The greater their acceptance of racial inequities (Levy & others, 1998; Williams & Eberhardt, 2008) o Group-serving bias Explaining away outgroup members’ positive behaviors
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