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13 nicolas copernicus born in poland known for

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13) Nicolas Copernicus – born in Poland, known for mathematics (1473-1543) a) His contribution to science a.i) The development of the new model of the solar system a.ii) The reappraisal of the existing theories of cosmology
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a.iii) His mathematician excellence gave him information to determine the distance of the various planets from the sun 14) Distance from Sun (Relative to the Earth’s distance from the Sun) a) to Mercury = .387 b) to Venus = .723 c) To Earth = 1.00 d) To Mars = 1.52 e) To Jupiter = 5.2 f) To Saturn = 9.54 15) Hans Lippershey – dutch spectacle maker that built the first telescope in 1608 a) Facts about first telescope a.i) He was first to apply for patent for design a.ii) It was only about 3 power a.iii) It was refracting which involved two lenses (eye lens, and primary lens) 16) Galileo – called the Father of modern Astronomy a) Trained in medical career b) Became professor of math and astronomy at the University of Pisa c) Greatest contribution in the field of Mechanics d) Experimented with pendulums, balls rolling down inclines, mirrors, etc. e) First to build a telescope for the purpose of observing and recording celestial bodies e.i) His telescope was about 30 power e.ii) Built in 1609 e.iii) Much improved refracting telescope e.iv) First to be credited with using it to look at the stars e.v) Made observations that were recorded in his book Message from the Stars 17) Isaac Newton – formulated the basic laws of modern mechanics a) Showed them to be universal throughout the solar system b) Reached all his accomplishments by the age of 24 c) Credited for developing the new big telescope in 1668 c.i) A reflecting telescope or often called (newtonian telescope) c.ii) Curved mirror instead of lens c.iii) Mirrors increased magnification – far beyond the lens telescopes d) Newtons laws of motion: d.i)In the absence of outside forces, the momentum of a system remains constant d.ii) If a force acts upon a body, the body accelerates in the direction of the force, its momentum changing at a rate numerically equal to that force d.iii) Forces are always mutual, thus if a force is exerted upon a body, that body reacts with an equal and opposite force upon whatever exerts the force upon it 18) Albert Einstein – published a paper on his Theory of Relativity a) Based on two postulates a.i) There is no absolute system with which we can measure motions in space, the best we can hope to measure is the relative motion of one object with respect to another a.ii) The speed of light, with respect to all observers is always the same 19) Equatorial Circumference of the Earth is 24,900 statue miles
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a) The earth is not perfectly spherical 20) Seismology – the study of stresses that build up gradually in the crust of the Earth and cause earthquakes a) Energy is released by fissures or faults resulting in earthquakes 21) Earth’s temperature increase about one degree Celsius for every one hundred feet you go downward into the crust of the Earth 22) Earth’s atmosphere is mostly Nitrogen , 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1 % argon, traces of water, carbon dioxide and other gases
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13 Nicolas Copernicus born in Poland known for mathematics...

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