In october of 1915 after much worry about foreign

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Norte. In October of 1915, after much worry about foreign investments, in the midst of struggles for power, the U.S. recognized Carranza as President of Mexico. When Pancho Villa learned of this he felt betrayed by President Wilson and assumed Carranza had signed a dangerous pact with the U.S., putting Mexico in United States’ hands. As a result, this set the stage for a confrontation between the U.S. and Pancho Villa. Hence, the United States put an embargo on Villa, not allowing him to purchase guns, ammunition, equipment, etc., in American border towns. His transactions were, thus, made illegal, which automatically doubles his price. Considering his shortages, troops through harsh terrain to Aagua Prieta. Villa assumed it would be poorly protected and by capturing it, he would create a buffer zone with the U.S. to transport arms in his campaigning efforts. Too his surprise, Agua Prieta was heavily protected, because Wilson had allowed Carranza to transport 5000 Mexican troops to American soil, which had arrived before Villa. The trains of soldiers forced Villa’s tired horseback troops into retreat. The U.S. was delighted when Carranza declared Villa done for good. Consequently, Carranza invited old U.S. investors (from before the Revolution) to invest again. On March 9th 1916, Villa crossed the border with about 600 men and attacked Columbus, NM killing 17 American citizens and destroying part of the town. Because of the growing discrimination towards Latinos, the bodies of Mexicans were gathered and burned as a sanitary precaution against "Mexican diseases." A punitive expedition,
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costing the U.S. about twenty-five million dollars, dispatched and about 150,000 troops to be mobilized in efforts to capture Pancho Villa, who was now known as a bandit in U.S. territory and a hero to many in Mexico. The Tenth Cavalry, which was made up of African-Americans and headed by Anglo-American officers, were labeled the "Buffalo Soldiers" because they were tough men who would punish the Mexicans. This was first time the United States used heavily armored vehicles and airplanes, which in turn served as a practice run before W.W.II. General John Joseph "Blackjack" Pershing had already earned a respectable name in the U.S. with his service in the Apache campaign, Therefore, he was assigned to head the Punitive Expedition, an attractive assignment. His
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  • Spring '10
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  • Mexican Revolution, Pancho Villa

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