arrests for property crimes and approximately 38% of all arrests for violent crimes. Black Americans are likely to be arrested for robbery, murder, and gambling. Detailed analysis through victimization surveys indicates that black- white differences in criminal behavior are real, rather than merely reflecting criminal justice system biases such as the likelihood of arrest (Hindelang, 1981). Because we are aware of black-white differences in criminal behavior, black Americans may be more closely watched than whites by law enforcement agencies, which would lead to higher arrest rates. Who Are the Victims? For every 1,000 Americans, 26 are crime victims each year (DOJ, 2013). Race and sex do play a part in this, with males and blacks considerably more likely to be victims.
10.4 Describe the four elements of the criminal justice system mentioned in the chapter, explain the role they play, evaluate their effectiveness, and elaborate on how the media contribute to the social construction of the crime problem.
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