Cape Cod is a creature of the glaciers, and most of the Cape’s lakes started by melting of buried ice blocks. Twigs are not brown algae. Arms of the sea are usually a bit bigger than this, although there was a big lake trapped in what is now Cape Cod Bay by the ice. And we have to wonder, is there a rock band named “Whale poop”? Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: E Your Response: E
11. What is indicated by the arrows? A. The yellow arrows point to the original beach, which was overwhelmed by a flood that carried the sand out to the pink arrows. B. The yellow arrows point to bars in the river, and the pink arrows point to a beach. C. The yellow arrows point to the original beach, but this is Greenland, and most of the beach moved to the pink arrows by soil-creep processes. D. The yellow arrows point to a coral reef, and the pink arrows point to a former coral reef that has been killed by global warming. E. The pink arrows point to a barrier beach or outer beach piled up by waves, and the yellow arrows point to a “washover” where a storm broke through the outer beach and moved sediment inland. Barrier beaches are piled up by waves, but especially strong storms often break through the beaches. Some of the sand at such new inlets is moved toward the land, often forming new beach-like deposits such as those indicated by the yellow arrows. Some sand is also often moved offshore into deeper water. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: E Your Response: E
12. Acadia is beautiful even in the rain and fog, but the park still doesn't have many sandy beaches, and this is surely not a sandy beach, the rocks are granite, broken off the granite bedrock. Why aren't there sandy beaches? A. Sand is produced or supplied slowly enough, and sand loss to deep water is fast enough, that sandy beaches do not form. B. The sand was mined and shipped to New Jersey to fill the beaches at Atlantic City. C. The sand blew away in big storms. D. Acadia gets huge winter storms, and sandy beaches are not found where huge storms occur. E. No sand is produced by weathering at Acadia, nor is sand supplied by rivers or glaciers. Granite does weather to make sand, so some sand must be produced, but this is not a sand deposit, so sand loss must be fast enough to prevent large accumulations. The Park Service would not allow sand mining, and New Jersey would just go offshore to deeper water to dig up sand. And huge storms hit Florida and the Gulf Coast, but they have sandy beaches. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: A Your Response: A
13. Humans often try to change coastal processes to benefit us. One of the many things we do is to build walls, or groins, or jetties, to interrupt waves and currents and sediment transport. This example is from the coast of Washington. What has happened here?
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