To manage group conflict, leaders should increase the ratio of substantive to relationship conflict.Strongly encourage a culture of openness that allows members to express divergent opinions about task methods and objectives.
Be receptive to novel or creative approaches to coping with the group’s task requirements.Clarify and reduce task ambiguities Get the group to focus on goals that emphasize the common interests of all group membersAvoid relationship conflictsChap. 11: Communication & NegotiationWhat is communication? (p. 491)•“The process of transferring info, meaning, and understanding from sender to receiver.”•All communication involves 4 actions & 5 components:•ACTIONS•Encoding•Sending•Receiving•Decoding•COMPONENTS•Sender•Message•Medium•Noise•ReceiverBasic model of communication (i.e., encoding, medium, decoding, etc. (p.492)-Encoding– the act of constructing a message.-Medium– choosing the mode of transmission of a message.-Decoding– the act of interpreting a message.-Noise– potential interference with the transmission or decoding of a message.Verbal vs. non-verbal communication (p. 493-494).Verbal Oral CommunicationVivid, stimulating, and commands attention.But transitory (unless recorded).Subject to misinterpretation -- especially when speakers are from different cultures.The Strategic Art of Oral CommunicationDon't write anything you can phone... Don't phone anything you can talk… Don't talk anything you can whisper... Don't whisper anything you can smile...Don't smile anything you can nod... Don't nod anything you can wink.Written Communication
Less prone to misinterpretation than oral communication. Less transitory (i.e., there is a paper trail).But also less vivid and rich and easier to ignore.May be subject to misinterpretation when translated from one language to another:Example: Northwest Airlines slogan: “Give Wings to Your Heart”Chinese translation: “Tie feathers to your blood pump.Lean vs. media rich communication (p.495-96).Media of CommunicationDifferent media have different characteristics:-Personal-impersonal nature-Speed in sending and receiving-Availability of multiple cues -Opportunity to receive immediate and continuing feedback from the receiverMedia richness: different media are classified as rich or lean based on their capacity to facilitate shared meaningDirection of communication within organizations (i.e., downward, upward, lateral) (p.498-99).Downward communication: sent from higher organizational levels to lower levels.Upward communication: sent from lower organizational levels to higher levels.Lateral communication: sent across essentially equivalent levels of an organization.Difference between formal and informal channels of communication (p. 499-500).
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