Therefore the period of 1885 to 1950s served as the

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Introduction to Learning and Behavior
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Chapter 11 / Exercise 9
Introduction to Learning and Behavior
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Therefore, the period of 1885 to 1950s served as the period of indirect rule in West Africa. This period witnessed political andeconomic dehumanization for the people of West Africa. This explains why the colonial era has a great impact on the pattern of administration in Nigeria. 3.1 AN OVERVIEW OF POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.The years preceding Lugard’s governorship though quite, it marked the emergence of a new class of Africans whose perspectives were wider. This group or class of people began to see themselves as Nigerians and not as their tribal or ethnic groups. In other words, they identified more with the Nigerian nation than their ethnic groups like Hausa – Fulani, Igbo, and Yoruba etc. It was this group, initially confined almost exclusively to Lagos because of their long contact with the Western civilization that fought and won independence for Nigeria in 1960. In between the two World Wars (1918 – 1939), there were not spectacular historical developments apart from a few administrative changes. But there was the slow but all important development of national consciousness among people of varying religious and cultural backgrounds. At first, Nigerian nationalism was largely promoted by non Nigerian, and its focus was on Africa as a whole rather than on the political units artificially created by the European colonial powers. Those who were championing the struggle were men like Edward Blyden; P.J. Jackson and a host of others. These early struggles gave birth to the National Congress of British Africa which was founded in 1920 with the aim of fighting for the people of African decent to participate in the government of their own country. It would be recalled that with the introduction of indirect rule or colonial rule in Nigeria, there was no provision for the absorption of the emerging educated elite since the indirect rule system encouraged the use of local chiefs and theirpolitical institutions for political control. The educated class had no place in this type of administration. After its inaugural conference in Accra led by a well known Gold Coast (Ghana) Lawyer by name Casely Hayford, and attended by the four British West African colonies namely Nigeria, Gold Coast (Ghana); Sierra Leone and Gambia.The congress decided to send a delegation to the Secretary of State for Colonies in London to present the following demands:- 1. The creation of legislative council for each colony, with half of the members elected Africans. 2. Control of taxation by African members of the Legislative Council. 3. Appointment of and deposition of chiefs should be done by their own people. 4. Abolition of racial discrimination in the civil service. 5. Establishment of a University in West Africa.
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Introduction to Learning and Behavior
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Chapter 11 / Exercise 9
Introduction to Learning and Behavior
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Their demands were turned down by the Secretary of State, Lord Milner. Thefrustrated delegate returned home only to be severely insulted and criticized by the colonial Governors of Nigeria and the Gold Coast.

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