Example by saying your paper needs improving a

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example, by saying, “your paper needs improving”, a professor intends to make the writer of the paper to make some improvement on the paper (perlocutionary object). Unfortunately, what he says makes the writer annoyed (perlocutionary sequel). Austin (1962:119) further clarifies the characteristic of perlocutionary acts that they are not conventional. It means that the response achieved or the sequel can be attained by additional or en- tirely by non-locutionary means: thus intimidation may be reached by waving a stick or pointing a gun. Fraser (1983:54) notes that it is in contrast to illocutionary act which its success is determined by a set of conversational rules called felicity or appropriateness condition, if a perlocutionary effect is intended, there is no conventional way for speaker to guarantee that it will be brought about. It can be concluded that perlocutionary acts are performed by saying something which produces certain effects on the hearers and there is no conventional way guaranteeing the success of its performance. 4. Felicity Conditions To perform an illocutionary felicitously, it is not enough too utter a grammatical sentence. Searle (1969:66-67) suggest that felicitous per- formance of an illocutionary act depends on four categories of condi- tions, These conditions are called appropriateness condition or felic- ity condition consisting of propositional content rule, preparatory rule, sincerity rule and essential rule. The detail of the felicity conditions on certain types of illocutionary acts are shown in the following tables. Pragmatics
140 An Introduction to Linguistics Table 10.1: The Felicity Condition on the Act of Requesting, and Asserting Stating, or Informing Rules Request Assert, state, affirm Propositional Future act A of H Any proposition P Preparatory 1. H is able to do A 1. S has evidence (reason, etc) for S believe H is able to do A the truth of P 2. It is not obvious to both 2. It is not obvious to both S and H S and H that H will do A in that H known (does not need to be The normal course of event of reminded, etc) P His own Sincerity S wants H to do A S believes P Essential Counts as an attempt to get H Counts as an undertaking to the to do A effect that P represents as An actual state of affairs Comment Order and command have the Additional preparatory rule that S must be in position of Authority over H The propositional content rule on the performance of the act of re- questing or ordering deals with futurity of the action ( A ) done by hearer ( H ). the preparatory rule concern with H ’s ability in doing the action. The sincerity rule concern with the speaker (S) wanting ( H ) to perform the action. Its essential rule concern with fact that S intend his/her utterance as an attempt to get H to perform the ordered or requested act.

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