example, by saying, “your paper needs improving”, a professor intends
to make the writer of the paper to make some improvement on the
paper (perlocutionary object). Unfortunately, what he says makes the
writer annoyed (perlocutionary sequel).
Austin (1962:119) further clarifies the characteristic of
perlocutionary acts that they are not conventional. It means that the
response achieved or the sequel can be attained by additional or en-
tirely by non-locutionary means: thus intimidation may be reached by
waving a stick or pointing a gun. Fraser (1983:54) notes that it is in
contrast to illocutionary act which its success is determined by a set of
conversational rules called felicity or appropriateness condition, if a
perlocutionary effect is intended, there is no conventional way for
speaker to guarantee that it will be brought about.
It can be concluded that
are performed by
saying something which produces certain effects on the hearers and
there is no conventional way guaranteeing the success of its performance.
To perform an illocutionary felicitously, it is not enough too utter
a grammatical sentence. Searle (1969:66-67) suggest that felicitous per-
formance of an illocutionary act depends on four categories of condi-
tions, These conditions are called
consisting of propositional content rule, preparatory rule,
sincerity rule and essential rule. The detail of the
certain types of illocutionary acts are shown in the following tables.