PSYC 129 Midterm 2 Study Guide.docx

Shape constancy an object can look different from its

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Shape Constancy - an object can look different from its original source, but it is still the same shape we are used to. We can open a door and see it looks more like a trapezoid, but we recognize that the door is and always is a rectangle. Distance constancy - apparent distance; when we think of the moon, when it is on the horizon, it looks larger, but when it is above us, we see it as smaller. When it is more on a physical plane we know and ‘grounded’, it can be seen as closer than actuality. Week 10:
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Homunculus fallacy - The idea of having a smaller person seeing what we see, but then who sees what the person inside us sees? “Bert: How do eyes project an image to your brain? Ernie: Think of it as a little guy in your brain watching the movie projected by your eyes. Bert: Ok, but what is happening in the little guy in your head’s brain? Ernie: Well, think of it as a little guy in his brain watching a movie…” Explanation: This fallacy creates an endless loop that actually explains nothing. It is fallacious reasoning to accept an explanation that creates this kind of endless loop that lacks any explanatory value. McGollough Effect Aftereffect Training with stimuli. Horizontal lines are red. Vertical lines green. After training, colors persist in neutral black and white stimuli. if someone alternately looks at a red horizontal grating and a green vertical grating for a few minutes, a black-and-white horizontal grating will then look greenish and a black-and-white vertical grating will then look pinkish. The effect is remarkable because, under certain circumstances, it can last up to three months or more. Concave Mirror Libby Effect What this means is that when we see a small version of ourselves and upside, we do not really see that figure as us. There is a sense of delay and disarray.
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Rock Chapter 4 - The Perception of Surface Blacks and Whites The lens of the human eye projects onto the retina a two-dimensional image of the three-dimensional world A change in the perceived spatial orientation of a surface can change its perceived color from black to white or from white to black The visual system is not an instrument that measures the wavelength and the intensity of reflected light The visual system has the ability to correctly perceive the physical color of a surface in spite of wide variations in the mixture of wavelengths in the illumination (color constancy) Similarly, the visual system has the ability to determine the lightness of a neutral surface in spite of wide variations in the intensity of the illumination (light constancy) The visual system determines reflectance by comparing the intensity of the light reflected from a surface with the intensity of light reflected from neighboring surfaces The visual system extracts only relative information from an edge, and such information is a small part of what the visual system needs in order to perceive color
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