MedRec enabled patients and doctors to share the medical data among di ff erent

Medrec enabled patients and doctors to share the

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records, which provides fair audit access log system. MedRec enabled patients and doctors to share the medical data among di ff erent parties using distributed ledger technology. They give incentives to the people such as researchers, other health individuals to participate in the mining process. MedRec enables anonymity of data and accessibility of that data to the miners as a reward to participate in the network. Zhang et al. [ 52 ] discussed about blockchain and smart contracts how blockchain based smart contracts has the potential to address di ff erent healthcare issues. In their work they took some initial steps to adopt blockchain technology for di ff erent healthcare use cases and pointed towards di ff erent challenges in the implementation of blockchain technology. They have elaborated that developing blockchain based apps can address healthcare issues in more e ffi cient ways. Kumar et al. [ 53 ] discussed di ff erent applications of blockchain for healthcare system. They have highlighted issues and challenges in adoption of blockchain technology and introduced smart contract for blockchain based medical system. Philippe et al. [ 54 ] presented consent management in the E-health environments and proposed blockchain as a secure and most reliable solution to handle healthcare data. Access to personal data has become a concern in this era of digital world, with challenging aspects of security and privacy. Digital security is a major challenge due to hacking motives and violations of privacy. This is possible in the eHealth area where patient’s health information management system must comply with many legislation while remaining accessible to healthcare professionals who are duly authorized. Because of its most popular use-Bitcoin-most will have heard of blockchain in the payment region. Nonetheless, the features of blockchain make it possible to meet the consent management criteria as demonstrated in an application within a case for use in a health domain.
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Electronics 2020 , 9 , 94 5 of 23 There are many advantages to the distributed ledger system as discussed by Nofer et al. [ 55 ] including security to the personal data, sensitive information handling, eliminating third parties, identity management. Unlike centralized networks, the network’s functionality continues even if individual nodes break down. It increases faith as the trustworthiness of the intermediary or other network members is not judged by individuals. It’s enough if people build confidence in the system itself. Data security is also facilitated by the lack of intermediaries. As there is a possibility of security breaches in the current practice of third parties gathering personal data. Third parties may become redundant by using the blockchain, e ff ectively increasing the protection of the user. A report by MIT Media Lab [ 56 ] presented about security and privacy aspects of data and personal information handling underlining all of the blockchain technology implementations. It is the value of the secure processing of data–in the sense that it cannot be manipulated. Another dimension of data security is data protection and privacy. For example, Enigma is a decentralized, privacy-guaranteed
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