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voluntary, informed consent from research participantsno coercion to participateonly properly trained scientists should carry out researchany risks must be outweighed by the humanitarian benefits of the researchresearch should be designed to minimise risk and sufferingparticipants can end experiment at any time, researchers must stop the research if it becomes apparent that outcomes are clearly harmfulTuskegee Syphilis Experiment•proved that the Nuremburg Code wasn't enough to prevent abuse of research participants by medical researchers. •ran from 1932 to 1972. The research subjects were poor African American men, sharecroppers in Alabama. They were coerced by various means to participate in the research. •The men in the experiment were told they were being treated for "bad blood." In fact, they were only observed to watch the progression of the disease. The doctors never treated them at all. •When the experiment started in 1932, there was no complete cure for syphilis, but there were treatment programs known to help. But during the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, these treatments were withheld. •Even when penicillin was discovered in the 1940s, participants in the Tuskegee syphilis trials were never told or treated. In fact, they were actively prevented from receiving treatment so that doctors could continue to watch the progress of syphilis. •By the end of the trial, "28 of the men had died directly of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children had been born with congenital syphilis.“•The fact that researchers deliberately withheld treatment meant that not only did the men in the study suffer for decades, others who were infected by them also suffered and were disfigured by the disease.•There was no scientific benefit from the study. Simply watching how the disease progresses did not help to find a cure for syphilis, and it did not help reduce the spread of venereal disease.•The Tuskegee Syphilis experiment has had a far-reaching impact on much more than just the health of the men involved. The "Legacy of Tuskegee" is that many African-Americans distrust white doctors and the government:–"In 1990, a survey found that 10 percent of African Americans believed that the U.S. government created AIDS as a plot to exterminate blacks, and another 20 percent could not rule out the possibility that this might be true. As preposterous and paranoid as this may sound, at one time the Tuskegee experiment must have seemed equally farfetched. –"Who could imagine the government, all the way up to the Surgeon General of the United States, deliberately allowing a group of its citizens to die from a
terrible disease for the sake of an ill-conceived experiment? In light of this andmany other shameful episodes in our history, African Americans' widespread mistrust of the government and white society in general should not be a surprise to anyone."The Helsinki Declarationoregulated research on human beingsoDeveloped in 1964 by the World Medical Association (elaboration of Nuremberg Code)o