E republics endow the people with all political

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e. Republics endow the people with all political authority, not the monarch. Question 7 a. In aristocracies, power and leadership is inherited. But natural aristocracies of talent see value in elevating those of ability, intelligence, achievement, and social standing to positions of power. b. Correct answer. The theory of a natural aristocracy of talent put an end to inherited power, but still embraced a social hierarchy in which a society’s betters—those of elite status and intelligence—were its natural leaders. c. The idea that through hard work, people can achieve is the foundation of a meritocracy—power and rewards as earned—not a natural aristocracy of talent. d. The notion that the good of the majority counts first and foremost was the hallmark of republicanism, but not the definition of a natural aristocracy of talent. e. Paine’s brand of republicanism placed all people on an equal footing; but many colonists weren’t willing to go quite so far, and while they wanted to end monarchies, they wanted to retain social hierarchies in which the best and brightest would lead. Question 8 a. While Henry Lee first stated the goal of independence that the Continental Congress approved, Jefferson’s Declaration listed for the Crown all the reasons for the break, including England’s decision to tax the colonies without their consent. b. The Declaration included the colonists’ dismay at England’s elimination of their right to trial by jury. c. The Declaration lambasted England for establishing a military dictatorship over the colonies. d. Correct answer. While colonists were outraged that England permitted Canada to remain Roman Catholic once it was acquired after the Seven Years’ War, this was not included in the grievances outlined in the Declaration of Independence. e. Colonists were outraged that England had cut off trade and included this in their reasons for severing ties in the Declaration of Independence.
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Question 9 a. Not only were Loyalists wealthy elites, but they tended to be of the older generation, happy with their lot in life and fearful that violent change would make things worse. b. Loyalists truly believed in the supremacy of the British army and thought no army could surpass its might, least of all colonial militias. c. Some Loyalists were British veterans of the Seven Years’ War who relocated to America to take advantage of land and other opportunities. Having fought for England in that war, they had an especially strong allegiance to their homeland. d. New immigrants from the British Isles, Ireland, and Scotland, who tended to be small farmers, resented the plantation elite, whom they associated with the Patriot movement. e. Correct. Thousands of fugitive slaves joined the British cause—even becoming soldiers—in the hopes of securing their freedom, but they were not the majority of all Loyalists.
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