In contrast to the past outbreaks in sudan gabon drc

  • No School
  • AA 1
  • 116

This preview shows page 31 - 34 out of 116 pages.

In contrast to the past outbreaks in Sudan, Gabon, DRC and Uganda, which were localized and mostly restricted to remote areas where they were detected, the West African case is geographically widespread. It spread from remote places such as Macenta and Guékédou to Conakry in Guinea, and from Kailahun and Bombali to Freetown in Sierra Leone, as well as from Lofa and Nimbia to Monrovia in Liberia. The age-long communal ties, the fluid cross-border movement and cultural practices facilitated this geographical spread. Figure 8: Mapping of the Ebola virus disease in Africa Source: WHO, UN; The Economist. Note: * Declared Ebola-free. † Excluding Congo SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE IN WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES
Image of page 31
14 Figure 9: Geographical spread of the Ebola virus disease, as of 11 February 2015 Source: WHO (2015). SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE IN WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES
Image of page 32
15 The Ebola epidemic is virulent, particularly in West Africa. Lewnard et al. (2014) estimated a basic reproductive rate (i.e. the average number of secondary infections produced by a primary infection) for EVD at 2.5, compared to 1.8 for Congo in 1995 and 1.3 for Uganda in 2000 (Chowel, 2004). 5,6 Why is the basic reproductive rate highest in West Africa? Several factors drive the spread of EVD in the region. First, health professionals often misdiagnosed the EVD since its early symptoms resemble those of other diseases endemic to the region (e.g. malaria, cholera and Lassa fever). EVD presents many similar symptoms to other viral infections, with non-specific signs such as fever, asthenia and body aches. After a few days, the predominant clinical syndrome becomes a severe gastrointestinal illness with vomiting and diarrhea. These symptoms can also result from a number of other diseases that are prevalent in the region, thus contributing to the silent spread of the virus, which remains hidden and eludes containment measures. The first case was recorded on 26 December 2013, but the virus was not officially declared as Ebola until 21 March 2014 (WHO, 2015a). Fear spreads as fast and as wide as a virus. The high mortality rate associated with Ebola threatens the ability to perform many interventions that could help contain the epidemic. Indeed, due to fear of infection, the public is reluctant to engage in contact tracing; infected persons are hesitant to present for treatment; and clinicians are frightened to provide care. 7 In this context, medical staff have felt a certain unease about treating a highly transmissible infection for which there is no vaccine, no specific therapy, and a high mortality rate. As a result, a paucity of knowledge on the disease, combined with the fear produced by the epidemic, may have delayed the implementation of simple interventions to prevent deaths (Lamontagne et al., 2014).
Image of page 33
Image of page 34

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 116 pages?

  • Fall '19
  • West Africa

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors