feminine and masculine role as appropriate Positive and negative sanctions

Feminine and masculine role as appropriate positive

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feminine and masculine role as appropriate Positive and negative sanctions Social institutions play a significant role in shaping people’s conceptions and practices on issues of gender and sexuality 8
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Gender Role – expected attitudes and behaviors a society associates with each sex Stereotypes – overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of all members of a group. Gender Stereotypes – a status or roles of male or female that is fixed according to the traits of their biological makeup or socially constructed. Sexism – a result of negative stereotypes on male or female. Patriarchy – a social system/structure in which male have superior power (male-domination). 9 2.3 Gender Constructionism
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2.3 Gender Constructionism Criticisms: Where do norms and values come from? Whose interests do they represent? Overemphasize on voluntary conformity to the “norm” Constrain masculine and feminine behavior 10
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Gender is created , not just within families or interpersonal relationships, but also within the structure of all major social institutions, including schools, religion, the economy, and the government. These institutions shape and mold the experiences of us.
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2. Functionalism 12
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2.1 Introducing Functionalism It is a macro-sociological perspective. It is also known as structural functionalism. Beliefs that society is made up of interdependent parts that operate together to keep the society balanced or, in equilibrium. Each of these parts fulfills certain functions in meeting basic social needs upon the survival of society. E.g. the domestic role of women maintain reproduction of the society. 13
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2.1 Introducing Functionalism (con’t) Functionalists believe that social control and stability are enhanced when people share beliefs, values and attitudes in common . Therefore, value consensus and social equilibrium are very important and being emphasized. Males and Females have different functions in pre- industrial and contemporary societies. 14
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2.1 Introducing Functionalism (con’t) In their analysis of gender, structural functionalists begin with the observation that men tend to be physically bigger and stronger than women. These biological differences have led to the emergence of different gender roles. Given that women bear and nurse children , it makes sense for them to stay at home and to rear them.
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