Gertrud Schultz Kilink was the head of the women’s division and helped reverse women emancipation · Women were typists and office clerks there were women beyond the sphere of the home who were actively complicit · Women were also camp guards (tended to come from lower class background and looked for possibility of upward mobility) · 10% of members of nazi party were women · women moved particularly from agriculture to industry · by 1939, nazis have to recalibrate slogan: now they need women engaged to help in the war · resistance, victims, and pepetrators · women in the third reich could also resist the nazis and there were women who did this · nazi regime was not solely based on fear but also compliance · Wedy Lower- turns our gaze eastward (Poland, Belo ruse, Ukraine) · In these areas, demand for labor (female) was enormous · Women were key in the nazis genocide
· Looks at a generation of women who were young (many unmarried), grew up with Nazism and we know very little about what happened once they left Germany and moved to the East · Discovers that there were women who fled germany and wanted to go to the east · Traces a new way of thinking about what did ordinary women do · Wanted to escape the monotony of home, wanted nice clothes, romance · Needed 10,000 secretaries to serve- went to the east as teachers, nurses, secretaries, wives, and mistresses · Watched the nazi empire emerge in the east (untrodden paths) · Some of the women were aids to the desk murderers, brutalized Jews in ghettos, present at killing field picnics (engaged in some of mass shootings), · Women were pretty much like men in the choices they made · Not more sentimental, not less rational · Choices were parallel to those of men · Most women complied with nazi rule, a minority were victims, smaller minority were resistors and rescuers, and larger minority actively engaged in the regime · Conclusion: belonging to one sex or the other did not determine the degree of involvement in the holocaust Discussion · Goldhagen is saying there is innate anti-Semitism that is in the blood of the Germans but then he says Germans aren’t like that anymore its impossible to explain such a quick change · Says it is erroneous to conclude that Germans were “one mind with Hitler” · How can Goldhagen’s thesis manifest in the political realm when we have evidence of the contrary · Browning throws out: is there just one type of anti-Semitism? No some wanted to kill Jews and others just did not want them around · Hitler’s conservatives allies wanted to not end Jewish life but dismantle Jewish unions April 8, 2014 Perpetrators, Bystanders, Victims? The Case of Poland and France · There were multiple factors in leading men to decide to kill (situational factors) · Jan Gross acts of us in his book: is it possible to be simultaneously a victim and a victimizer?
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