O cultural stereotypes play a large part in the

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o Cultural stereotypes play a large part in the misperception many people hold regarding sexuality of older adults. o Physical changes associated with sexuality o Changes in women Decline in ovarian function Reduced production of estrogen Vaginal dryness Menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, irritability, mood swings, migraine headaches, urinary incontinence, weight gain) Some women choose to take hormone replacement therapy o Changes in men Decline in testosterone production Erectile dysfunction Decrease in testicular size Decrease in amount of ejaculate Viable sperm are produced well into old age ° Special Concerns of Elderly People Retirement o Social implications o Economic implications Long-term care o Potential need for services is predicted by Age
Health Mental health status Socioeconomic and demographic factors Marital status, living arrangement, and the informal support network o Attitudinal factors: elderly individuals in general are opposed to the use of institutions. Many view them as “places to go to die.” Elder abuse o It has been estimated that 1 to 2 million Americans age 65 or older have been injured, exploited, or otherwise mistreated by someone on whom they depended for care or protection. o The abuser is often a relative who lives with the elderly person and may be the assigned caregiver. o Factors that contribute to abuse Longer life Dependency Stress Learned violence o Identifying elder abuse Suicide o Persons 65 years of age and older represent a disproportionately high percentage of individuals who commit suicide. o More than 15 percent of all suicides are committed by this age group. o The group at highest risk appears to be white men experiencing loneliness, financial problems, physical illness, loss, and/or depression. ° Application of the Nursing Process ° Assessment Assessment of elderly people must consider the possible biological, psychological, sociocultural, and sexual changes that occur in the normal aging process. Age alone does not preclude the occurrence of these changes, and each client must be assessed as a unique individual. ° Diagnosis/Outcome Identification Nursing diagnoses that relate to physiological changes in the aging individual may include any or all of the following
o Risk for trauma o Hypothermia o Decreased cardiac output o Ineffective breathing pattern o Risk for aspiration o Impaired physical ability o Imbalanced nutrition, less than body requirements o Constipation o Stress urinary incontinence o Urinary retention o Disturbed sensory perception o Insomnia o Chronic pain o Self-care deficit o Risk for impaired skin integrity Psychosocially related nursing diagnoses may include o Disturbed thought processes o Complicated grieving o Risk for suicide o Powerlessness o Low self-esteem o Fear o Disturbed body image o Ineffective sexuality pattern
o Sexual dysfunction o Social isolation o

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