Each domain forms a compact three-dimensional structure and often can be independently stable and folded.
8.Orthologous Genes: A type of homologous gene (genes that arise from a common DNA ancestral sequence), this gene diverged after a speciation even9.Paralogous Genes: Diverged from one another within a speciesChapter 101.DNA Polymorphism: any difference in the nucleotide sequence between individuals. These differences can be single base pair changes, deletions, insertions, or even changes in the number of copies of a given DNA sequence.2.SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphism is the most common type of DNA Polymorphism in humans. a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), or guanine (G]) in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species or paired chromosomes in an individual3.DNA Fingerprinting: DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling is a process used to determinethe nucleotide sequence at a specific part of the DNA that is unique in all human beings.4.SSR: Simple sequence repeats. sometimes described as genetic 'stutters,' are DNA tracts in which a short base-pair motif is repeated several to many times in tandem (e.g. CAGCAGCAG). These sequences experience frequent mutations that alter the number ofrepeats5.Locus: in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker). Each chromosome carries many genes; human's estimated 'haploid' protein coding genes are 19,000–20,000, on the 23 different chromosomes6.Exome: a genomic technique for sequencing all of the protein-coding region of genes in agenome (known as the exome). It consists of two steps: the first step is to select only the subset of DNA that encodes proteinsChapter 111.Chromosome: a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes2.Euchromatin:chromosome material which does not stain strongly except during cell division. It represents the major genes and is involved in transcription3.Nucleosome: a structural unit of a eukaryotic chromosome, consisting of a length of DNAcoiled around a core of histones4.FISH: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides researchers with a way to visualize and map the genetic material in an individual's cells, including specific genes orportions of genes. This may be used for understanding a variety of chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic mutations5.Chromatin: a macromolecule made up of DNA or RNA and proteins. ... Its functions are to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to serve as a mechanism to control expression. The chromatin is found within the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells6.Histones: highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. They are the chief protein components of chromatin, acting as spools around which DNA winds, and playing a role in gene regulation7.Telomere: They function to protect the ends of chromosomes from sticking to each other.
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