Arabspersians promoted many religions esp buddhism

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Arabs/Persians) Promoted many religions, esp. Buddhism. Decline: Economy died from useless paper money +inflation Golden Horde : Mongols ruled over Russia from 1237-1241, then they ran Poland, Hungary, and Eastern Germany (segregated from the rest of Europe) Decline: Bubonic Plague from trade routes Ilkhanate of Persia : integration/assimilation Khubilai's brother H ülegü captured Baghdad, fell after Muslim forces expelled them → Mongols become administrators and shamans Decline: Strain on Persian treasury, death of Ilkhan Ghazan Americas: Mesoamerica Aztecs : Mexica expands and conquers, esp in gulf-triple alliance w Tlacopan and Texcoco, ruler Montezuma invades Oaxaca in SW Mexico Government : oppressive rulers required tribute , but let the people govern themselves (local power, no bureaucracy) Social hierarchy w honor and rewards for military elite (male warriors) Warriors and priests basically lived the best lives Merchants had a considerable prestige Women- fertility, marketplaces and crafts, but no positions Innovations: commoners lived in hamlets and calpulli (groups) and cultivated chinampas (fields) Religious Belief: dates back to the Olmecs spoke Nahuatl, had a 365d and ritual calendar & adopted a ball game Gods: Tezcatlipoca- Giver and taker of life, Quetzalcoatl “the Feathered Serpent”- arts & culture, Huitzilopochtli- war god. Mexica emphasized human sacrifices Bloodletting - ritual to give gods blood to ensure continuation of the world (crops) Andean Incas: largest empire along the Andes in South America, led by Pachacuti “Earthshaker” w strong army Government: regional kingdoms of highland societies (potatoes, llamas - made wool and were the only domesticated animals before the Europeans) and lowland societies, were much more centralized than Aztecs (strict social hierarchy, irrigation for maize and sweet potatoes) Cuzco : amazing administrative, religious, and ceremonial center. Bureaucrats, nobility, and priests. Trade controlled by govt. Social hierarchy. Rulers controlled everything. Extremely respected. Priests did religious rituals and lived in luxury. Peasants live in ayllus (family-based communities)and worked on state land (labor tribute) Innovations: Quipu: mnemonic aid using knots, strings, and beads to keep records and order in govt. Built roads though empire for communication and military travel. Diffused culture throughout and centralized govt. Religious Belief: Inti , the sun god. Built golden structures on temples and sacrificed produce and animals Morals- don’t violate natural order Early Italian Renaissance : secularism (current life is worth living for-not only for the purpose of afterlife preparation), humanism (humans are not just God’s pawns and are capable of their own accomplishments), individualism (belief that an individual can accomplish things on their own), skepticism (challenge authority) Giotto ’s Lamentation of the Dead Christ was the transition Dante (Divine Comedy) & Geoffrey Chaucer (The Canterbury Tales) also helped transition
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