ESBJORN METAWORRY ACCEPTED COPY.doc

Apart from differences regarding positive and

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metacognition, as they have used the MCQ-C which does not assess cognitive confidence. Apart from differences regarding positive and negative beliefs, we found that anxious children, regardless of diagnosis, had higher levels of meta-beliefs about the need to control thoughts than non-clinical controls. This finding is also in line with Ellis and Hudson (2011), applying the MCQ-A (on which the currently applied MCQ-C 30 is based), but not with studies applying the MCQ-C, where no differences between the clinical and non-clinical groups were found (Bacow et al., 2010; Smith & Hudson, 2013). Finally, the current study found no significant differences between any of the groups on cognitive self-consciousness. This is consistent with results from previous studies applying adult, 19 19 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444
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METACOGNITIONS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS adolescent, and childhood samples (Cartwright-Hatton et al., 2004; Cartwright-Hatton & Wells, 1997; Ellis & Hudson, 2011; Smith & Hudson, 2013), but inconsistent with another study of a childhood sample (Bacow et al., 2010). In the latter study, non-anxious youth were reported to have significantly higher levels of cognitive monitoring compared to clinically anxious youth with GAD and SAD. General Discussion The present studies aimed to assess the extent to which children experience the same processes in worry and GAD as have been found in adults. According to Cartwright-Hatton and colleagues (2011), this is the first step in extending an adult model of anxiety to children. Previous studies of the MCM in childhood and adolescent samples have only provided partial support for the model (e.g., Bacow et al., 2010; Cartwright-Hatton et al., 2004; Ellis & Hudson, 2011; Matthews, Reynolds, & Derisley, 2006). Our results offer the most substantive support for the applicability of the metacognitive model of GAD (Wells, 1995) to children as young as seven years of age. The strongest support comes from the role of negative worry beliefs. Study 1 suggests that having negative beliefs about worry is the metacognitive process that makes the largest contribution to the variance in worry and anxiety. Study 2 takes these findings a step further in demonstrating that a significant difference between anxious children with and without GAD is negative worry beliefs. This is consistent with theory (Wells, 1995) and previous research (Cartwright-Hatton & Wells, 1997; Davis & Valentiner, 2000; Wells & Carter, 2001; Wells & Papageorgiou, 1998). According to the developmental psychopathology paradigm, metacognitions are only pieces of a large and complex puzzle that is the etiology of GAD (Kertz & Woodruff-Borden, 2011; Rapee, 2001). Nonetheless, focusing on the developmental mechanisms of anxiety disorders may provide a useful way of understanding present and previous findings from childhood samples. Generally, 20 20 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468
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METACOGNITIONS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS elevated levels of positive metacognitions have been reported when comparing clinical groups to non-anxious control groups. Two studies have reported elevated levels when comparing clinically
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