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The stone partitions of houses are pervious to voices and to scent and cold and heat of fire, which penetrates also through hard iron.” [Lucretius, The Nature of the Universe, translated by Ronald Latham]❋ 19. The title of Master Bladesmith is awarded by the American Bladesmith Society. To earn the title, according to an article in the New Yorker(2008), a knife-maker must cre-ate a knife that can “accomplish four tasks, in this order: cut through an inch-thick piece of Manila rope in a single swipe; chop
102 Chapter 4Argument Analysisthrough a two-by-four, twice; place the blade on his forearm and shave a swath of arm hair; and finally, lock the knife in a vise and permanently bend it ninety degrees.” [Todd Oppenheimer, “Sharper,” New Yorker, November 24, 2008]20. “A struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high rate at which all organic beings tend to increase. Every being, which during its natural lifetime produces several eggs or seeds, must suffer destruction during some period of its life, and during some season or occasional year, otherwise, on the principle of geometrical increase, its numbers would quickly become so inordi-nately great that no country could support the product. Hence, as more individuals are produced than can possibly survive, there must in every case be a struggle for exis-tence, either one individual with another of the same species, or with the individuals of distinct species, or with the physical condi-tions of life.” [Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species]E. For each of the following propositions, first, construct an argument to support it, and then con-struct an argument against it. Diagram your arguments, and make them as strong as possible (even if that means using premises you don’t actually agree with).F. Use each of the following propositions as a premise in an argument. You may look for a conclu-sion that will follow from the proposition directly, or you may combine the proposition with other premises to support some conclusion (the latter approach is recommended). Make your argument as strong as possible, and diagram it as you go. When you are finished, write a paragraph expressing the argument as clearly and persuasively as you can.1. The athletes at a college or university should have to meet the same academic standards as other students.2. The government should pay tuition for anyone who wants a college education.3. Anyone caught cheating on a final exam should be expelled from school.4. Public high-school officials should not have the right to search students’ lockers for drugs.5. Before the age of 21, everyone should have to spend a year in mandatory national ser-vice, working in the military or in domestic government programs.1. Los Angeles is located near a fault line.